Impact of simulated solar irradiation on disinfection byproduct precursors

Alex T. Chow, Dina M. Leech, Treavor Boyer, Philip C. Singer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is the major drinking water source for 23 million California residents. Consequently, many studies have examined disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in relation to Delta dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. However, DOC characteristics within the Delta are not the same as those entering downstream water treatment facilities. As water is transferred to Southern California through the California Aqueduct, a 714.5 km-open channel, it is exposed to sunlight, potentially altering DBP precursors. We collected water from three sites within the Delta and one nearthe California Aqueduct, representing different DOC sources, and irradiated them in a solar simulator at a dose equivalent to that received during four days conveyance in the aqueduct. Photolytic changes in DOC were assessed by measuring CO 2 and organic acid production, fluorescence, and ultraviolet absorbance over time. Trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) formation potentials, as well as the distribution of hydrophobic, transphilic, and hydrophilic acid fractions were determined at exposures equivalent to one and four days. Solar irradiation significantly decreased ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence intensity, produced organic acids, and increased the hydrophilic fraction of waters. These changes in DOC caused a shift in bromine incorporation among the THM and HAA species. Our results are the first to demonstrate the importance of sunlight in altering DOC with respect to DBP formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5586-5593
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume42
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Disinfection
Organic carbon
disinfection
dissolved organic carbon
Byproducts
irradiation
Irradiation
aqueduct
Trihalomethanes
Organic acids
absorbance
organic acid
Acids
Water
acid
fluorescence
Fluorescence
Bromine
bromine
Carbon Monoxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering

Cite this

Impact of simulated solar irradiation on disinfection byproduct precursors. / Chow, Alex T.; Leech, Dina M.; Boyer, Treavor; Singer, Philip C.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 15, 01.08.2008, p. 5586-5593.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chow, Alex T. ; Leech, Dina M. ; Boyer, Treavor ; Singer, Philip C. / Impact of simulated solar irradiation on disinfection byproduct precursors. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2008 ; Vol. 42, No. 15. pp. 5586-5593.
@article{cf35312bfdc845fbb699ce3fb30751cb,
title = "Impact of simulated solar irradiation on disinfection byproduct precursors",
abstract = "The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is the major drinking water source for 23 million California residents. Consequently, many studies have examined disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in relation to Delta dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. However, DOC characteristics within the Delta are not the same as those entering downstream water treatment facilities. As water is transferred to Southern California through the California Aqueduct, a 714.5 km-open channel, it is exposed to sunlight, potentially altering DBP precursors. We collected water from three sites within the Delta and one nearthe California Aqueduct, representing different DOC sources, and irradiated them in a solar simulator at a dose equivalent to that received during four days conveyance in the aqueduct. Photolytic changes in DOC were assessed by measuring CO 2 and organic acid production, fluorescence, and ultraviolet absorbance over time. Trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) formation potentials, as well as the distribution of hydrophobic, transphilic, and hydrophilic acid fractions were determined at exposures equivalent to one and four days. Solar irradiation significantly decreased ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence intensity, produced organic acids, and increased the hydrophilic fraction of waters. These changes in DOC caused a shift in bromine incorporation among the THM and HAA species. Our results are the first to demonstrate the importance of sunlight in altering DOC with respect to DBP formation.",
author = "Chow, {Alex T.} and Leech, {Dina M.} and Treavor Boyer and Singer, {Philip C.}",
year = "2008",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/es800206h",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "42",
pages = "5586--5593",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "15",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of simulated solar irradiation on disinfection byproduct precursors

AU - Chow, Alex T.

AU - Leech, Dina M.

AU - Boyer, Treavor

AU - Singer, Philip C.

PY - 2008/8/1

Y1 - 2008/8/1

N2 - The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is the major drinking water source for 23 million California residents. Consequently, many studies have examined disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in relation to Delta dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. However, DOC characteristics within the Delta are not the same as those entering downstream water treatment facilities. As water is transferred to Southern California through the California Aqueduct, a 714.5 km-open channel, it is exposed to sunlight, potentially altering DBP precursors. We collected water from three sites within the Delta and one nearthe California Aqueduct, representing different DOC sources, and irradiated them in a solar simulator at a dose equivalent to that received during four days conveyance in the aqueduct. Photolytic changes in DOC were assessed by measuring CO 2 and organic acid production, fluorescence, and ultraviolet absorbance over time. Trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) formation potentials, as well as the distribution of hydrophobic, transphilic, and hydrophilic acid fractions were determined at exposures equivalent to one and four days. Solar irradiation significantly decreased ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence intensity, produced organic acids, and increased the hydrophilic fraction of waters. These changes in DOC caused a shift in bromine incorporation among the THM and HAA species. Our results are the first to demonstrate the importance of sunlight in altering DOC with respect to DBP formation.

AB - The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is the major drinking water source for 23 million California residents. Consequently, many studies have examined disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in relation to Delta dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. However, DOC characteristics within the Delta are not the same as those entering downstream water treatment facilities. As water is transferred to Southern California through the California Aqueduct, a 714.5 km-open channel, it is exposed to sunlight, potentially altering DBP precursors. We collected water from three sites within the Delta and one nearthe California Aqueduct, representing different DOC sources, and irradiated them in a solar simulator at a dose equivalent to that received during four days conveyance in the aqueduct. Photolytic changes in DOC were assessed by measuring CO 2 and organic acid production, fluorescence, and ultraviolet absorbance over time. Trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) formation potentials, as well as the distribution of hydrophobic, transphilic, and hydrophilic acid fractions were determined at exposures equivalent to one and four days. Solar irradiation significantly decreased ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence intensity, produced organic acids, and increased the hydrophilic fraction of waters. These changes in DOC caused a shift in bromine incorporation among the THM and HAA species. Our results are the first to demonstrate the importance of sunlight in altering DOC with respect to DBP formation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=48749113050&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=48749113050&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/es800206h

DO - 10.1021/es800206h

M3 - Article

C2 - 18754480

AN - SCOPUS:48749113050

VL - 42

SP - 5586

EP - 5593

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 15

ER -