Impact of Homeowner Association (HOA) landscaping guidelines on residential water use

Elizabeth Wentz, Sandra Rode, Xiaoxiao Li, Elizabeth M. Tellman, Billie Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The association between increasing water intensive land-cover, such as the use of turf grass and trees, and increasing water use is a growing concern for water-stressed arid cities. Appropriate regulatory measures addressing residential landscaping, such as those applied by Homeowner Associations (HOAs), may serve to reduce municipal water use, joining other water-use reducing measures under consideration by arid cities. This research assesses quantitatively the role that Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CCRs) applied to landscaping by HOAs play on water consumption. Statistical comparisons and models of n=1973 parcels in Goodyear, Arizona, USA, reveal that: HOA yards have less vegetation cover and those households use less peak-season water (July) than those households in non-HOA neighborhoods. This hold true even though the HOA CCRs regulate only the minimum required front-yard vegetation and most residents maintain more than the minimum vegetation level. Furthermore, front-yard landscaping tends to be mimicked in the backyard such that total yard landscaping tracks best with total household water use. Results of the study suggest that HOA landscaping regulations have the potential to reduce peak-season water use by up to 24% if CCRs were to set maximum vegetation regulations rather than minimum and if compliance were enforced. Lowering residential water consumption in this way potentially involves tradeoffs with the cooling effects of vegetation and its consequences on the urban heat island effect, on energy use, and on home values.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3373-3386
Number of pages14
JournalWater Resources Research
Volume52
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016

Fingerprint

homeowner
water use
vegetation
heat island
energy use
water
vegetation cover
compliance
land cover
grass
cooling
household

Keywords

  • climate change
  • conditions
  • covenants
  • private governance
  • residential water use
  • restrictions
  • water conservation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology

Cite this

Impact of Homeowner Association (HOA) landscaping guidelines on residential water use. / Wentz, Elizabeth; Rode, Sandra; Li, Xiaoxiao; Tellman, Elizabeth M.; Turner, Billie.

In: Water Resources Research, Vol. 52, No. 5, 01.05.2016, p. 3373-3386.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wentz, Elizabeth ; Rode, Sandra ; Li, Xiaoxiao ; Tellman, Elizabeth M. ; Turner, Billie. / Impact of Homeowner Association (HOA) landscaping guidelines on residential water use. In: Water Resources Research. 2016 ; Vol. 52, No. 5. pp. 3373-3386.
@article{3ccf058d79954b8c80cc0af09269f586,
title = "Impact of Homeowner Association (HOA) landscaping guidelines on residential water use",
abstract = "The association between increasing water intensive land-cover, such as the use of turf grass and trees, and increasing water use is a growing concern for water-stressed arid cities. Appropriate regulatory measures addressing residential landscaping, such as those applied by Homeowner Associations (HOAs), may serve to reduce municipal water use, joining other water-use reducing measures under consideration by arid cities. This research assesses quantitatively the role that Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CCRs) applied to landscaping by HOAs play on water consumption. Statistical comparisons and models of n=1973 parcels in Goodyear, Arizona, USA, reveal that: HOA yards have less vegetation cover and those households use less peak-season water (July) than those households in non-HOA neighborhoods. This hold true even though the HOA CCRs regulate only the minimum required front-yard vegetation and most residents maintain more than the minimum vegetation level. Furthermore, front-yard landscaping tends to be mimicked in the backyard such that total yard landscaping tracks best with total household water use. Results of the study suggest that HOA landscaping regulations have the potential to reduce peak-season water use by up to 24{\%} if CCRs were to set maximum vegetation regulations rather than minimum and if compliance were enforced. Lowering residential water consumption in this way potentially involves tradeoffs with the cooling effects of vegetation and its consequences on the urban heat island effect, on energy use, and on home values.",
keywords = "climate change, conditions, covenants, private governance, residential water use, restrictions, water conservation",
author = "Elizabeth Wentz and Sandra Rode and Xiaoxiao Li and Tellman, {Elizabeth M.} and Billie Turner",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/2015WR018238",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "52",
pages = "3373--3386",
journal = "Water Resources Research",
issn = "0043-1397",
publisher = "American Geophysical Union",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of Homeowner Association (HOA) landscaping guidelines on residential water use

AU - Wentz, Elizabeth

AU - Rode, Sandra

AU - Li, Xiaoxiao

AU - Tellman, Elizabeth M.

AU - Turner, Billie

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - The association between increasing water intensive land-cover, such as the use of turf grass and trees, and increasing water use is a growing concern for water-stressed arid cities. Appropriate regulatory measures addressing residential landscaping, such as those applied by Homeowner Associations (HOAs), may serve to reduce municipal water use, joining other water-use reducing measures under consideration by arid cities. This research assesses quantitatively the role that Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CCRs) applied to landscaping by HOAs play on water consumption. Statistical comparisons and models of n=1973 parcels in Goodyear, Arizona, USA, reveal that: HOA yards have less vegetation cover and those households use less peak-season water (July) than those households in non-HOA neighborhoods. This hold true even though the HOA CCRs regulate only the minimum required front-yard vegetation and most residents maintain more than the minimum vegetation level. Furthermore, front-yard landscaping tends to be mimicked in the backyard such that total yard landscaping tracks best with total household water use. Results of the study suggest that HOA landscaping regulations have the potential to reduce peak-season water use by up to 24% if CCRs were to set maximum vegetation regulations rather than minimum and if compliance were enforced. Lowering residential water consumption in this way potentially involves tradeoffs with the cooling effects of vegetation and its consequences on the urban heat island effect, on energy use, and on home values.

AB - The association between increasing water intensive land-cover, such as the use of turf grass and trees, and increasing water use is a growing concern for water-stressed arid cities. Appropriate regulatory measures addressing residential landscaping, such as those applied by Homeowner Associations (HOAs), may serve to reduce municipal water use, joining other water-use reducing measures under consideration by arid cities. This research assesses quantitatively the role that Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CCRs) applied to landscaping by HOAs play on water consumption. Statistical comparisons and models of n=1973 parcels in Goodyear, Arizona, USA, reveal that: HOA yards have less vegetation cover and those households use less peak-season water (July) than those households in non-HOA neighborhoods. This hold true even though the HOA CCRs regulate only the minimum required front-yard vegetation and most residents maintain more than the minimum vegetation level. Furthermore, front-yard landscaping tends to be mimicked in the backyard such that total yard landscaping tracks best with total household water use. Results of the study suggest that HOA landscaping regulations have the potential to reduce peak-season water use by up to 24% if CCRs were to set maximum vegetation regulations rather than minimum and if compliance were enforced. Lowering residential water consumption in this way potentially involves tradeoffs with the cooling effects of vegetation and its consequences on the urban heat island effect, on energy use, and on home values.

KW - climate change

KW - conditions

KW - covenants

KW - private governance

KW - residential water use

KW - restrictions

KW - water conservation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84992308977&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84992308977&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/2015WR018238

DO - 10.1002/2015WR018238

M3 - Article

VL - 52

SP - 3373

EP - 3386

JO - Water Resources Research

JF - Water Resources Research

SN - 0043-1397

IS - 5

ER -