Immunopathology of 8-week-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) exposed to malathion

Brad L. Day, Mary M. Walser, Jagdev M. Sharma, David E. Andersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In addition to their acute neurotoxic effects, some organophosphorus compounds have been shown to have immunotoxic properties. Alterations in the immune system may lead to chronic morbidity and/or mortality that is not readily apparent at the time of initial exposure. Because it often inhabits land that is intensely farmed, the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) may be a suitable biomonitor of agroecosystems, especially those used in the production of corn. We examined immunopathologic effects of a widely used organophosphate insecticide, malathion, on 8-week-old, cage-reared ring-necked pheasants 3 d after a single oral dose. No differences were seen in hematologic parameters, body weight, or weight of the bursa of Fabricius. Birds given a high dose of malathion (230 mg/kg) displayed significant decreases in absolute and relative thymic and splenic weights (p ≤ 0.05). Significant changes were also seen in thymic and splenic histomorphometry (p ≤ 0.05). The high-dose group and, in some cases, the low-dose group (92 mg/kg) displayed significant histologic lesions. These findings indicate that a single dose of malathion, at the LD50 level (230 mg/kg) and occasionally at 40% of the LD50 level (92 mg/kg), is capable of inducing quantitative and qualitative changes in the lymphoid organs of the ring-necked pheasant that may affect immune function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1719-1726
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume14
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Malathion
malathion
Lethal Dose 50
Bursa of Fabricius
Organophosphorus Compounds
organophosphate
Weights and Measures
Organophosphates
Environmental Monitoring
Immune system
Birds
Insecticides
Zea mays
Immune System
Body Weight
Morbidity
immune system
morbidity
agricultural ecosystem
Mortality

Keywords

  • Ring-necked pheasant Biomonitor Malathion Chronic Immunopathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Day, B. L., Walser, M. M., Sharma, J. M., & Andersen, D. E. (1995). Immunopathology of 8-week-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) exposed to malathion. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14(10), 1719-1726.

Immunopathology of 8-week-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) exposed to malathion. / Day, Brad L.; Walser, Mary M.; Sharma, Jagdev M.; Andersen, David E.

In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 14, No. 10, 10.1995, p. 1719-1726.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Day, BL, Walser, MM, Sharma, JM & Andersen, DE 1995, 'Immunopathology of 8-week-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) exposed to malathion', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1719-1726.
Day, Brad L. ; Walser, Mary M. ; Sharma, Jagdev M. ; Andersen, David E. / Immunopathology of 8-week-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) exposed to malathion. In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 1995 ; Vol. 14, No. 10. pp. 1719-1726.
@article{870e4b1c4afa4d32b5e562f6843d63fe,
title = "Immunopathology of 8-week-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) exposed to malathion",
abstract = "In addition to their acute neurotoxic effects, some organophosphorus compounds have been shown to have immunotoxic properties. Alterations in the immune system may lead to chronic morbidity and/or mortality that is not readily apparent at the time of initial exposure. Because it often inhabits land that is intensely farmed, the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) may be a suitable biomonitor of agroecosystems, especially those used in the production of corn. We examined immunopathologic effects of a widely used organophosphate insecticide, malathion, on 8-week-old, cage-reared ring-necked pheasants 3 d after a single oral dose. No differences were seen in hematologic parameters, body weight, or weight of the bursa of Fabricius. Birds given a high dose of malathion (230 mg/kg) displayed significant decreases in absolute and relative thymic and splenic weights (p ≤ 0.05). Significant changes were also seen in thymic and splenic histomorphometry (p ≤ 0.05). The high-dose group and, in some cases, the low-dose group (92 mg/kg) displayed significant histologic lesions. These findings indicate that a single dose of malathion, at the LD50 level (230 mg/kg) and occasionally at 40{\%} of the LD50 level (92 mg/kg), is capable of inducing quantitative and qualitative changes in the lymphoid organs of the ring-necked pheasant that may affect immune function.",
keywords = "Ring-necked pheasant Biomonitor Malathion Chronic Immunopathology",
author = "Day, {Brad L.} and Walser, {Mary M.} and Sharma, {Jagdev M.} and Andersen, {David E.}",
year = "1995",
month = "10",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "1719--1726",
journal = "Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry",
issn = "0730-7268",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Immunopathology of 8-week-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) exposed to malathion

AU - Day, Brad L.

AU - Walser, Mary M.

AU - Sharma, Jagdev M.

AU - Andersen, David E.

PY - 1995/10

Y1 - 1995/10

N2 - In addition to their acute neurotoxic effects, some organophosphorus compounds have been shown to have immunotoxic properties. Alterations in the immune system may lead to chronic morbidity and/or mortality that is not readily apparent at the time of initial exposure. Because it often inhabits land that is intensely farmed, the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) may be a suitable biomonitor of agroecosystems, especially those used in the production of corn. We examined immunopathologic effects of a widely used organophosphate insecticide, malathion, on 8-week-old, cage-reared ring-necked pheasants 3 d after a single oral dose. No differences were seen in hematologic parameters, body weight, or weight of the bursa of Fabricius. Birds given a high dose of malathion (230 mg/kg) displayed significant decreases in absolute and relative thymic and splenic weights (p ≤ 0.05). Significant changes were also seen in thymic and splenic histomorphometry (p ≤ 0.05). The high-dose group and, in some cases, the low-dose group (92 mg/kg) displayed significant histologic lesions. These findings indicate that a single dose of malathion, at the LD50 level (230 mg/kg) and occasionally at 40% of the LD50 level (92 mg/kg), is capable of inducing quantitative and qualitative changes in the lymphoid organs of the ring-necked pheasant that may affect immune function.

AB - In addition to their acute neurotoxic effects, some organophosphorus compounds have been shown to have immunotoxic properties. Alterations in the immune system may lead to chronic morbidity and/or mortality that is not readily apparent at the time of initial exposure. Because it often inhabits land that is intensely farmed, the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) may be a suitable biomonitor of agroecosystems, especially those used in the production of corn. We examined immunopathologic effects of a widely used organophosphate insecticide, malathion, on 8-week-old, cage-reared ring-necked pheasants 3 d after a single oral dose. No differences were seen in hematologic parameters, body weight, or weight of the bursa of Fabricius. Birds given a high dose of malathion (230 mg/kg) displayed significant decreases in absolute and relative thymic and splenic weights (p ≤ 0.05). Significant changes were also seen in thymic and splenic histomorphometry (p ≤ 0.05). The high-dose group and, in some cases, the low-dose group (92 mg/kg) displayed significant histologic lesions. These findings indicate that a single dose of malathion, at the LD50 level (230 mg/kg) and occasionally at 40% of the LD50 level (92 mg/kg), is capable of inducing quantitative and qualitative changes in the lymphoid organs of the ring-necked pheasant that may affect immune function.

KW - Ring-necked pheasant Biomonitor Malathion Chronic Immunopathology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029153081&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029153081&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 1719

EP - 1726

JO - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

JF - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

SN - 0730-7268

IS - 10

ER -