Imaging β-galactosidase activity using 19F chemical shift imaging of LacZ gene-reporter molecule 2-fluoro-4-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside

Vikram D. Kodibagkar, Jianxin Yu, Li Liu, Hoby P. Hetherington, Ralph P. Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


2-Fluoro-4-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside (OFPNPG) belongs to a novel class of NMR active molecules (fluoroaryl-β-d-galactopyranosides), which are highly responsive to the action of β-galactosidase (β-gal). OFPNPG has a single 19F peak (-55 ppm relative to aqueous sodium trifluoroacetate). Upon cleavage by β-gal, the pH sensitive aglycone 2-fluoro-4-nitrophenol (OFPNP) is observed at a chemical shift of -59 to -61 ppm. The chemical shift response is sufficient to observe β-gal activity using chemical shift imaging (CSI). 19F CSI studies of enzyme activity and lacZ gene expression in 9L-glioma and MCF7 breast cancer cells are presented, providing further evidence for the utility of OFPNPG as a gene-reporter molecule for future in vivo studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)959-962
Number of pages4
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Breast cancer
  • CSI
  • F NMR
  • Phenylgalactopyranosides
  • lacZ gene reporter
  • β-Galactosidase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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