Sprains at the knee are the most frequent of the severe injuries occurring during alpine snow skiing. This paper discusses the development of analytical models describing rotations across the knee joint caused by varus-valgus and internal-external moments applied at the foot during skiing. Identification of an ARMAX model requires simultaneous measurements of the rotations across the knee and the moments at the foot during skiing. As the models only relate the measured input (moment) and output (rotation) data, they also identify components of apparent rotation resulting from imperfect fixation of the rotation measuring instrument on the test subject and resulting from other inputs. The models identified for all subjects are of order four or five for both varus-valgus and internal-external rotation, and they describe modes with oscillatory and exponentially decaying components. Application of the models to prediction of rotation across the knee from the measured moment at the foot is illustrated by example. A new, and virtually mechanically uncoupled, six degrees-of-freedom, strain gauge dynamometer is developed to record the moments at the foot during skiing. The concept of the dynamometer design has general application.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Biomedical Engineering