Identification of country of origin and admixture between Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques

David Glenn Smith, Debra George, Sreetharan Kanthaswamy, John McDonough

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


We describe a restriction analysis that distinguishes between rhesus macaques of unmixed Indian and Chinese ancestry and between western and eastern Chinese ancestry. We amplified a 254-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that contains restriction sites hypothesized to be diagnostic of country of origin for samples from 534 and 567 individuals alleged to be of solely Indian or solely Chinese origin, respectively. After digestion with the MaeIII, SmlI, and BccI restriction enzymes, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of only 3 of the 1101 samples exhibited restriction patterns uncharacteristic of their alleged country of origin. A sample comprising 392 of these rhesus macaques was genotyped for 24 nuclear microsatellite (STR) loci. Principal coordinates analysis confirmed marked genetic similarity of regional populations within each country but a substantial difference between Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques. Using STRUCTURE (Pritchard and Wen, 2003),we assigned probabilities of Chinese and Indian ancestry to each sample based on its STR genotypes. We assigned all the unmixed rhesus macaques to their correct countries of origin with probabilities >0.95. We constructed an artificial sample of 1st-generation hybrid Indian/Chinese rhesus macaques by randomly sampling from the genotypes of Indian and Chinese individuals. STRUCTURE assigned robabilities of Chinese and Indian ancestry to hybrids that closely corresponded with the proportions of alleles in that sample drawn from unmixed Chinese and Indian rhesus macaques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)881-898
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Primatology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Admixture
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Mitochondrial DNA
  • Origin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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