A microcapillary technique has been employed to determine the homogeneous nucleation temperatures Th of solutions of water and various oil-soluble solutes which cannot be investigated by means of emulsion techniques used previously for nucleation temperatures studies. A series of partly hydrophobic solutes as well as some hydrophilic solutes have been investigated in the low concentration region, X2 ≤ 0.05. In all cases Th decreased with increasing solute concentration, but it has been shown that the effect of each molecule can be analyzed in terms of additive contributions from each group in the molecule. On this basis it has been possible to estimate the value of Th for solutions with totally hydrophobic character, such as the alkanes. The thermodynamic and structural relations between Th and the temperature of maximum density Tmd are tentatively discussed in terms of these results.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry