Hydrogel Check-Valves for the Treatment of Hydrocephalic Fluid Retention with Wireless Fully-Passive Sensor for the Intracranial Pressure Measurement

Seunghyun Lee, Shiyi Liu, Ruth E. Bristol, Mark C. Preul, Jennifer Blain Christen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Hydrocephalus (HCP) is a neurological disease resulting from the disruption of the cere-brospinal fluid (CSF) drainage mechanism in the brain. Reliable draining of CSF is necessary to treat hydrocephalus. The current standard of care is an implantable shunt system. However, shunts have a high failure rate caused by mechanical malfunctions, obstructions, infection, blockage, breakage, and over or under drainage. Such shunt failures can be difficult to diagnose due to nonspecific systems and the lack of long-term implantable pressure sensors. Herein, we present the evaluation of a fully realized and passive implantable valve made of hydrogel to restore CSF draining operations within the cranium. The valves are designed to achieve a non-zero cracking pressure and no reverse flow leakage by using hydrogel swelling. The valves were evaluated in a realistic fluidic environment with ex vivo CSF and brain tissue. They display a successful operation across a range of conditions, with negligible reverse flow leakage. Additionally, a novel wireless pressure sensor was incorporated alongside the valve for in situ intracranial pressure measurement. The wireless pressure sensor successfully replicated standard measurements. Those evaluations show the reproducibility of the valve and sensor functions and support the system’s potential as a chronic implant to replace standard shunt systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number276
JournalGels
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • MEMS
  • brain implant
  • hydrocephalus
  • hydrogel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics

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