Human hydration indices: Acute and longitudinal reference values

Lawrence E. Armstrong, Amy C. Pumerantz, Kelly A. Fiala, Melissa W. Roti, Stavros A. Kavouras, Douglas J. Casa, Carl M. Maresh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

168 Scopus citations

Abstract

It is difficult to describe hydration status and hydration extremes because fluid intakes and excretion patterns of free-living individuals are poorly documented and regulation of human water balance is complex and dynamic. This investigation provided reference values for euhydration (i.e., body mass, daily fluid intake, serum osmolality; M ± SD); it also compared urinary indices in initial morning samples and 24-hr collections. Five observations of 59 healthy, active men (age 22 ± 3 yr, body mass 75.1 ± 7.9 kg) occurred during a 12-d period. Participants maintained detailed records of daily food and fluid intake and exercise. Results indicated that the mean total fluid intake in beverages, pure water, and solid foods was >2.1 L/24 hr (range 1.382-3.261, 95% confidence interval 0.970-3.778 L/24 hr); mean urine volume was >1.3 L/24 hr (0.875-2.250 and 0.675-3.000 L/24 hr); mean urine specific gravity was >1.018 (1.011-1.027 and 1.009-1.030); and mean urine color was ≥4 (4-6 and 2-7). However, these men rarely (0-2% of measurements) achieved a urine specific gravity below 1.010 or color of 1. The first morning urine sample was more concentrated than the 24-h urine collection, likely because fluids were not consumed overnight. Furthermore, urine specific gravity and osmolality were strongly correlated (r2 = .81-.91, p < .001) in both morning and 24-hr collections. These findings provide euhydration reference values and hydration extremes for 7 commonly used indices in free-living, healthy, active men who were not exercising in a hot environment or training strenuously.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-153
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Volume20
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2010

Keywords

  • Fluid intake
  • Osmolality
  • Plasma
  • Specific gravity
  • Total body water
  • Urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Human hydration indices: Acute and longitudinal reference values'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this