Abstract

This study explored the potential for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to contaminate the UK drinking water supplies and established the significance of the drinking water exposure route compared to other routes of human exposure. A review of the occurrence and quantities of ENPs in different product types on the UK market as well as release scenarios, their possible fate and behaviour in raw water and during drinking water treatment was performed. Based on the available data, all the ENPs which are likely to reach water sources were identified and categorized. Worst case concentrations of ENPs in raw water and treated drinking water, using a simple exposure model, were estimated and then qualitatively compared to available estimates for human exposure through other routes. A range of metal, metal oxide and organic-based ENPs were identified that have the potential to contaminate drinking waters. Worst case predicted concentrations in drinking waters were in the low- to sub-μg/l range and more realistic estimates were tens of ng/l or less. For the majority of product types, human exposure via drinking water was predicted to be less important than exposure via other routes. The exceptions were some clothing materials, paints and coatings and cleaning products containing Ag, Al, TiO2, Fe2O3 ENPs and carbon-based materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)102-110
Number of pages9
JournalNanotoxicology
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2 2016

Fingerprint

Potable water
Drinking Water
Nanoparticles
Water
Metals
Clothing
Paint
Water Purification
Water Supply
Water treatment
Water supply
Oxides
Cleaning
Carbon
Coatings

Keywords

  • Concentration
  • estimation
  • human health
  • market penetration
  • nanomaterials
  • release
  • surface water
  • waste water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Tiede, K., Hanssen, S. F., Westerhoff, P., Fern, G. J., Hankin, S. M., Aitken, R. J., ... Boxall, A. B. A. (2016). How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers? Nanotoxicology, 10(1), 102-110. https://doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2015.1022888

How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers? / Tiede, Karen; Hanssen, Steffen Foss; Westerhoff, Paul; Fern, Gordon J.; Hankin, Steven M.; Aitken, Robert J.; Chaudhry, Qasim; Boxall, Alistair B A.

In: Nanotoxicology, Vol. 10, No. 1, 02.01.2016, p. 102-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tiede, K, Hanssen, SF, Westerhoff, P, Fern, GJ, Hankin, SM, Aitken, RJ, Chaudhry, Q & Boxall, ABA 2016, 'How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers?', Nanotoxicology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 102-110. https://doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2015.1022888
Tiede, Karen ; Hanssen, Steffen Foss ; Westerhoff, Paul ; Fern, Gordon J. ; Hankin, Steven M. ; Aitken, Robert J. ; Chaudhry, Qasim ; Boxall, Alistair B A. / How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers?. In: Nanotoxicology. 2016 ; Vol. 10, No. 1. pp. 102-110.
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