Hot and cool dimensionality of executive function: Model invariance across age and maternal education in preschool children

the School Readiness Research Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The structure of executive function (EF), as it pertains to distinct “hot” (affectively salient) and “cool” (affectively neutral) dimensions, in early childhood is not well understood. Given that the neural circuitry underlying EF may become increasingly differentiated with development and enriched experiences, EF may become more dissociable into hot and cool factors with age and advantaged socioeconomic circumstances. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare a multidimensional hot and cool EF model with a unidimensional model in early childhood, and to investigate model invariance across age and maternal education. Participants were 1900 children (2–5 years of age) from socioeconomically diverse families in an urban area in the southern United States. We aggregated data from four previously collected studies that included EF tasks, thus this study includes secondary data analysis. We tested model fit across (1) children older and younger than 4 years of age and (2) higher (college experience) versus lower (no college) maternal education. Results indicated that a two-factor hot and cool EF model provided the best fit to the data across all groups. Although the number of factors was invariant, only partial metric invariance was met for age, suggesting that how certain tests represent EF changes with age. For maternal education, partial scalar invariance was met, with higher maternal education associated with higher scores on certain EF tasks. Findings with this large sample suggest that EF includes two factors characterized as hot and cool. However, the study raises questions about model invariance, particularly across age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)188-201
Number of pages14
JournalEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
Volume49
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

Fingerprint

Executive Function
Maternal Age
Preschool Children
preschool child
Education
education
Mothers
childhood
Age Factors
secondary analysis
Statistical Factor Analysis
factor analysis
urban area
experience
data analysis

Keywords

  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Early childhood
  • Executive function
  • Socioeconomic status

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this

Hot and cool dimensionality of executive function : Model invariance across age and maternal education in preschool children. / the School Readiness Research Consortium.

In: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Vol. 49, 01.10.2019, p. 188-201.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{df76f508a13642c4b960b1900a8c231d,
title = "Hot and cool dimensionality of executive function: Model invariance across age and maternal education in preschool children",
abstract = "The structure of executive function (EF), as it pertains to distinct “hot” (affectively salient) and “cool” (affectively neutral) dimensions, in early childhood is not well understood. Given that the neural circuitry underlying EF may become increasingly differentiated with development and enriched experiences, EF may become more dissociable into hot and cool factors with age and advantaged socioeconomic circumstances. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare a multidimensional hot and cool EF model with a unidimensional model in early childhood, and to investigate model invariance across age and maternal education. Participants were 1900 children (2–5 years of age) from socioeconomically diverse families in an urban area in the southern United States. We aggregated data from four previously collected studies that included EF tasks, thus this study includes secondary data analysis. We tested model fit across (1) children older and younger than 4 years of age and (2) higher (college experience) versus lower (no college) maternal education. Results indicated that a two-factor hot and cool EF model provided the best fit to the data across all groups. Although the number of factors was invariant, only partial metric invariance was met for age, suggesting that how certain tests represent EF changes with age. For maternal education, partial scalar invariance was met, with higher maternal education associated with higher scores on certain EF tasks. Findings with this large sample suggest that EF includes two factors characterized as hot and cool. However, the study raises questions about model invariance, particularly across age.",
keywords = "Confirmatory factor analysis, Early childhood, Executive function, Socioeconomic status",
author = "{the School Readiness Research Consortium} and Montroy, {Janelle J.} and Merz, {Emily C.} and Williams, {Jeffrey M.} and Landry, {Susan H.} and Johnson, {Ursula Y.} and Zucker, {Tricia A.} and Michael Assel and Taylor, {Heather B.} and Lonigan, {Christopher J.} and Phillips, {Beth M.} and Jeanine Clancy-Menchetti and Barnes, {Marcia A.} and Nancy Eisenberg and Tracy Spinrad and Carlos Valiente and {de Villiers}, Jill and {de Villiers}, P.",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ecresq.2019.06.011",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "49",
pages = "188--201",
journal = "Early Childhood Research Quarterly",
issn = "0885-2006",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hot and cool dimensionality of executive function

T2 - Model invariance across age and maternal education in preschool children

AU - the School Readiness Research Consortium

AU - Montroy, Janelle J.

AU - Merz, Emily C.

AU - Williams, Jeffrey M.

AU - Landry, Susan H.

AU - Johnson, Ursula Y.

AU - Zucker, Tricia A.

AU - Assel, Michael

AU - Taylor, Heather B.

AU - Lonigan, Christopher J.

AU - Phillips, Beth M.

AU - Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine

AU - Barnes, Marcia A.

AU - Eisenberg, Nancy

AU - Spinrad, Tracy

AU - Valiente, Carlos

AU - de Villiers, Jill

AU - de Villiers, P.

PY - 2019/10/1

Y1 - 2019/10/1

N2 - The structure of executive function (EF), as it pertains to distinct “hot” (affectively salient) and “cool” (affectively neutral) dimensions, in early childhood is not well understood. Given that the neural circuitry underlying EF may become increasingly differentiated with development and enriched experiences, EF may become more dissociable into hot and cool factors with age and advantaged socioeconomic circumstances. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare a multidimensional hot and cool EF model with a unidimensional model in early childhood, and to investigate model invariance across age and maternal education. Participants were 1900 children (2–5 years of age) from socioeconomically diverse families in an urban area in the southern United States. We aggregated data from four previously collected studies that included EF tasks, thus this study includes secondary data analysis. We tested model fit across (1) children older and younger than 4 years of age and (2) higher (college experience) versus lower (no college) maternal education. Results indicated that a two-factor hot and cool EF model provided the best fit to the data across all groups. Although the number of factors was invariant, only partial metric invariance was met for age, suggesting that how certain tests represent EF changes with age. For maternal education, partial scalar invariance was met, with higher maternal education associated with higher scores on certain EF tasks. Findings with this large sample suggest that EF includes two factors characterized as hot and cool. However, the study raises questions about model invariance, particularly across age.

AB - The structure of executive function (EF), as it pertains to distinct “hot” (affectively salient) and “cool” (affectively neutral) dimensions, in early childhood is not well understood. Given that the neural circuitry underlying EF may become increasingly differentiated with development and enriched experiences, EF may become more dissociable into hot and cool factors with age and advantaged socioeconomic circumstances. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare a multidimensional hot and cool EF model with a unidimensional model in early childhood, and to investigate model invariance across age and maternal education. Participants were 1900 children (2–5 years of age) from socioeconomically diverse families in an urban area in the southern United States. We aggregated data from four previously collected studies that included EF tasks, thus this study includes secondary data analysis. We tested model fit across (1) children older and younger than 4 years of age and (2) higher (college experience) versus lower (no college) maternal education. Results indicated that a two-factor hot and cool EF model provided the best fit to the data across all groups. Although the number of factors was invariant, only partial metric invariance was met for age, suggesting that how certain tests represent EF changes with age. For maternal education, partial scalar invariance was met, with higher maternal education associated with higher scores on certain EF tasks. Findings with this large sample suggest that EF includes two factors characterized as hot and cool. However, the study raises questions about model invariance, particularly across age.

KW - Confirmatory factor analysis

KW - Early childhood

KW - Executive function

KW - Socioeconomic status

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85069613716&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85069613716&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ecresq.2019.06.011

DO - 10.1016/j.ecresq.2019.06.011

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85069613716

VL - 49

SP - 188

EP - 201

JO - Early Childhood Research Quarterly

JF - Early Childhood Research Quarterly

SN - 0885-2006

ER -