Home environment and school performance: a ten-year follow-up and examination of three models of environmental action.

R. H. Bradley, B. M. Caldwell, S. L. Rock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

209 Scopus citations


The home environments of 42 10- and 11-year-old children were examined when they were infants and again during middle childhood. Significant correlations were observed between home environments measured at both 2 years and 10 years and the children's SRA achievement test scores and their classroom behavior. However, the home environment at 6 months was only related to a limited number of classroom behaviors. Partial correlations were used to test 3 models of environmental action: Model I (primacy of early experience), Model II (predominance of the contemporary environment), Model III (cumulative effects in stable environments). Strongest relations were noted for the contemporary environment, but all 3 models received some support. Correlations between HOME scores and children's competence in middle childhood revealed a complex portrait that was not explainable with reference to a single model of environmental action. The version of the HOME Inventory used with families of elementary school children is also introduced.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)852-867
Number of pages16
JournalChild development
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1988


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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