Higher-order finite-difference schemes for electromagnetic radiation, scattering, and penetration, Part I: Theory

Stavros V. Georgakopoulos, Craig R. Birtcher, Constantine Balanis, Rosemary Renaut

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

83 Scopus citations


Higher-order schemes for the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Method are presented, in particular, a second-order-in-time, fourth-order-in-space method: FDTD(2,4). This method is compared to the original Yee FDTD scheme. One-dimensional update equations are presented, and the characteristics of the FDTD(2,4) scheme are investigated. Theoretical results for numerical stability and dispersion are presented, with numerical results for the latter, as well. The use of the perfectly matched layer for the FDTD(2,4) scheme is discussed, and numerical results are shown. Applications follow in the second part of this two-part paper.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)134-142
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2002



  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Electromagnetic scattering
  • FDTD methods
  • Numerical stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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