Heterogeneous silicon integration by ultra-high vacuum wafer bonding

M. J. Kim, Ray Carpenter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Heterogeneous integration of technologically important materials, such as SiC/Si, GaN/Si, Ge/Si, Si/nano-Si/Si, SiC-on-insulator (SiCOI), and ZrO2/SiO2/Si, was successfully made by ultra-high vacuum (UHV) wafer bonding. A unique, UHV bonding unit, especially designed to control interface structure, chemistry, and crystallographic orientation within narrow limits, was used to produce homophase and heterophase planar interfaces. In-situ thin-film-deposition capability in conjunction with the wafer bonding offered even more flexibility for producing integrated artificial structures. Prebonding surface preparation was critically important for the formation of strong bonded interfaces. The substrate-surface morphology was examined by atomic-force microscopy (AFM) prior to bonding. In-situ Auger spectroscopy measurements of surface chemistry were invaluable predictors of bonding behaviors. Plasma processing very effectively cleaned the substrates, achieving a near-perfect interfacial bond at the atomic scale. The integrity of the bonded interfaces was studied in the light of their structural and chemical characteristics analyzed by high-resolution, analytical electron microscopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)849-854
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Volume32
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2003

Fingerprint

Wafer bonding
Ultrahigh vacuum
Silicon
ultrahigh vacuum
wafers
silicon
Plasma applications
Substrates
Surface chemistry
Electron microscopy
Surface morphology
Atomic force microscopy
chemistry
Spectroscopy
Thin films
integrity
Auger spectroscopy
electron microscopy
flexibility
insulators

Keywords

  • Heterogeneous integration
  • Interface
  • Transmission electron microscopy
  • Wafer bonding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Heterogeneous silicon integration by ultra-high vacuum wafer bonding. / Kim, M. J.; Carpenter, Ray.

In: Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 32, No. 8, 08.2003, p. 849-854.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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