HETE-2 localization and observation of the bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst GRB 021211

G. B. Crew, D. Q. Lamb, G. R. Ricker, J. L. Atteia, N. Kawai, R. Vanderspek, J. Villasenor, J. Doty, G. Prigozhin, J. G. Jernigan, C. Graziani, Y. Shirasaki, T. Sakamoto, M. Suzuki, Nathaniel Butler, K. Hurley, T. Tamagawa, A. Yoshida, M. Matsuoka, E. E. Fenimore & 18 others M. Galassi, C. Barraud, M. Boer, J. P. Dezalay, J. F. Olive, A. Levine, G. Monnelly, F. Martel, E. Morgan, T. Q. Donaghy, K. Torii, S. E. Woosley, T. Cline, J. Braga, R. Manchanda, G. Pizzichini, K. Takagishi, M. Yamauchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst (GRB) was detected by the French Gamma Telescope (FREGATE) and localized with the Wide Field X-ray Monitor (WXM) and Soft X-ray Camera (SXC) instruments on the High Energy Transient Explorer 2 satellite (HETE-2) at 11:18:34.03 UT (40714.03 SOD) on 2002 December 11. The WXM flight software localized the burst to a 14′ radius; this was relayed to the astronomical community 22 s after the start of the burst. Ground analysis of WXM and SXC data provided refined localizations; the latter can be described as a circle with a radius of 2′ centered at R.A. 08 h09m00s, decl. 06°44′20″ (J2000.0). GRB 021211 consists of a single, FRED-like pulse with a duration t90 ≈ 2.3 s at high energies (85-400 keV), which increases to t90 ≈ 8.5 s at low energies (2-10 keV). The peak photon number and photon energy fluxes in the 2-400 keV band are (34.0 ± 1.8) photons cm-2 s-1 and (1.68 ± 0.11) × 10-6 ergs cm-2 s-1, respectively. The energy fluences in the 2-30 and 30-400 keV energy bands are 5X = (1.36 ± 0.05) × 10-6 ergs cm-2 and Sγ = (2.17 ± 0.15) × 10-6 ergs cm-2, respectively. Thus, GRB 021211 is an X-ray-rich GRB (SX/Sγ = 0.63 > 0.32). The average spectrum of the burst is well fitted by a Band function (low-energy power-law index α = -0.805-0.105 +0.112; high-energy power-law index β = -2.37-0.31 +0.18 and energy of the peak of the spectrum in νFν, E peak obs = 46.8-5.1 +5.8 keV). The near-real-time optical follow-up of GRB 021211 made possible by HETE-2 led to the detection of an optical afterglow for what otherwise would quite likely have been classified as an "optically dark" GRB, since the optical transient faded rapidly (from R < 14 to R ≈ 19) within the first 20 minutes, and was fainter than R ≈ 23 within 24 hr after the burst. GRB 021211 demonstrates that some fraction of burst afterglows are optically dark because their optical afterglows at times greater than 1 hr after the burst are very faint, and previously have often escaped detection. Such bursts are "optically dim" rather than truly optically dark. GRB 021211 also shows that even such optically dim bursts can have very bright optical afterglows at times less than 20 minutes after the burst.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-393
Number of pages7
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume599
Issue number1 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 10 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Explorer 2 satellite
gamma ray bursts
bursts
afterglows
energy
x rays
erg
monitors
power law
photons
cameras
radii
energy flux
energy bands

Keywords

  • Gamma rays: bursts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Crew, G. B., Lamb, D. Q., Ricker, G. R., Atteia, J. L., Kawai, N., Vanderspek, R., ... Yamauchi, M. (2003). HETE-2 localization and observation of the bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst GRB 021211. Astrophysical Journal, 599(1 I), 387-393. https://doi.org/10.1086/379222

HETE-2 localization and observation of the bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst GRB 021211. / Crew, G. B.; Lamb, D. Q.; Ricker, G. R.; Atteia, J. L.; Kawai, N.; Vanderspek, R.; Villasenor, J.; Doty, J.; Prigozhin, G.; Jernigan, J. G.; Graziani, C.; Shirasaki, Y.; Sakamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Butler, Nathaniel; Hurley, K.; Tamagawa, T.; Yoshida, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Galassi, M.; Barraud, C.; Boer, M.; Dezalay, J. P.; Olive, J. F.; Levine, A.; Monnelly, G.; Martel, F.; Morgan, E.; Donaghy, T. Q.; Torii, K.; Woosley, S. E.; Cline, T.; Braga, J.; Manchanda, R.; Pizzichini, G.; Takagishi, K.; Yamauchi, M.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 599, No. 1 I, 10.12.2003, p. 387-393.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Crew, GB, Lamb, DQ, Ricker, GR, Atteia, JL, Kawai, N, Vanderspek, R, Villasenor, J, Doty, J, Prigozhin, G, Jernigan, JG, Graziani, C, Shirasaki, Y, Sakamoto, T, Suzuki, M, Butler, N, Hurley, K, Tamagawa, T, Yoshida, A, Matsuoka, M, Fenimore, EE, Galassi, M, Barraud, C, Boer, M, Dezalay, JP, Olive, JF, Levine, A, Monnelly, G, Martel, F, Morgan, E, Donaghy, TQ, Torii, K, Woosley, SE, Cline, T, Braga, J, Manchanda, R, Pizzichini, G, Takagishi, K & Yamauchi, M 2003, 'HETE-2 localization and observation of the bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst GRB 021211', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 599, no. 1 I, pp. 387-393. https://doi.org/10.1086/379222
Crew GB, Lamb DQ, Ricker GR, Atteia JL, Kawai N, Vanderspek R et al. HETE-2 localization and observation of the bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst GRB 021211. Astrophysical Journal. 2003 Dec 10;599(1 I):387-393. https://doi.org/10.1086/379222
Crew, G. B. ; Lamb, D. Q. ; Ricker, G. R. ; Atteia, J. L. ; Kawai, N. ; Vanderspek, R. ; Villasenor, J. ; Doty, J. ; Prigozhin, G. ; Jernigan, J. G. ; Graziani, C. ; Shirasaki, Y. ; Sakamoto, T. ; Suzuki, M. ; Butler, Nathaniel ; Hurley, K. ; Tamagawa, T. ; Yoshida, A. ; Matsuoka, M. ; Fenimore, E. E. ; Galassi, M. ; Barraud, C. ; Boer, M. ; Dezalay, J. P. ; Olive, J. F. ; Levine, A. ; Monnelly, G. ; Martel, F. ; Morgan, E. ; Donaghy, T. Q. ; Torii, K. ; Woosley, S. E. ; Cline, T. ; Braga, J. ; Manchanda, R. ; Pizzichini, G. ; Takagishi, K. ; Yamauchi, M. / HETE-2 localization and observation of the bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst GRB 021211. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2003 ; Vol. 599, No. 1 I. pp. 387-393.
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title = "HETE-2 localization and observation of the bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst GRB 021211",
abstract = "A bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst (GRB) was detected by the French Gamma Telescope (FREGATE) and localized with the Wide Field X-ray Monitor (WXM) and Soft X-ray Camera (SXC) instruments on the High Energy Transient Explorer 2 satellite (HETE-2) at 11:18:34.03 UT (40714.03 SOD) on 2002 December 11. The WXM flight software localized the burst to a 14′ radius; this was relayed to the astronomical community 22 s after the start of the burst. Ground analysis of WXM and SXC data provided refined localizations; the latter can be described as a circle with a radius of 2′ centered at R.A. 08 h09m00s, decl. 06°44′20″ (J2000.0). GRB 021211 consists of a single, FRED-like pulse with a duration t90 ≈ 2.3 s at high energies (85-400 keV), which increases to t90 ≈ 8.5 s at low energies (2-10 keV). The peak photon number and photon energy fluxes in the 2-400 keV band are (34.0 ± 1.8) photons cm-2 s-1 and (1.68 ± 0.11) × 10-6 ergs cm-2 s-1, respectively. The energy fluences in the 2-30 and 30-400 keV energy bands are 5X = (1.36 ± 0.05) × 10-6 ergs cm-2 and Sγ = (2.17 ± 0.15) × 10-6 ergs cm-2, respectively. Thus, GRB 021211 is an X-ray-rich GRB (SX/Sγ = 0.63 > 0.32). The average spectrum of the burst is well fitted by a Band function (low-energy power-law index α = -0.805-0.105 +0.112; high-energy power-law index β = -2.37-0.31 +0.18 and energy of the peak of the spectrum in νFν, E peak obs = 46.8-5.1 +5.8 keV). The near-real-time optical follow-up of GRB 021211 made possible by HETE-2 led to the detection of an optical afterglow for what otherwise would quite likely have been classified as an {"}optically dark{"} GRB, since the optical transient faded rapidly (from R < 14 to R ≈ 19) within the first 20 minutes, and was fainter than R ≈ 23 within 24 hr after the burst. GRB 021211 demonstrates that some fraction of burst afterglows are optically dark because their optical afterglows at times greater than 1 hr after the burst are very faint, and previously have often escaped detection. Such bursts are {"}optically dim{"} rather than truly optically dark. GRB 021211 also shows that even such optically dim bursts can have very bright optical afterglows at times less than 20 minutes after the burst.",
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author = "Crew, {G. B.} and Lamb, {D. Q.} and Ricker, {G. R.} and Atteia, {J. L.} and N. Kawai and R. Vanderspek and J. Villasenor and J. Doty and G. Prigozhin and Jernigan, {J. G.} and C. Graziani and Y. Shirasaki and T. Sakamoto and M. Suzuki and Nathaniel Butler and K. Hurley and T. Tamagawa and A. Yoshida and M. Matsuoka and Fenimore, {E. E.} and M. Galassi and C. Barraud and M. Boer and Dezalay, {J. P.} and Olive, {J. F.} and A. Levine and G. Monnelly and F. Martel and E. Morgan and Donaghy, {T. Q.} and K. Torii and Woosley, {S. E.} and T. Cline and J. Braga and R. Manchanda and G. Pizzichini and K. Takagishi and M. Yamauchi",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - HETE-2 localization and observation of the bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst GRB 021211

AU - Crew, G. B.

AU - Lamb, D. Q.

AU - Ricker, G. R.

AU - Atteia, J. L.

AU - Kawai, N.

AU - Vanderspek, R.

AU - Villasenor, J.

AU - Doty, J.

AU - Prigozhin, G.

AU - Jernigan, J. G.

AU - Graziani, C.

AU - Shirasaki, Y.

AU - Sakamoto, T.

AU - Suzuki, M.

AU - Butler, Nathaniel

AU - Hurley, K.

AU - Tamagawa, T.

AU - Yoshida, A.

AU - Matsuoka, M.

AU - Fenimore, E. E.

AU - Galassi, M.

AU - Barraud, C.

AU - Boer, M.

AU - Dezalay, J. P.

AU - Olive, J. F.

AU - Levine, A.

AU - Monnelly, G.

AU - Martel, F.

AU - Morgan, E.

AU - Donaghy, T. Q.

AU - Torii, K.

AU - Woosley, S. E.

AU - Cline, T.

AU - Braga, J.

AU - Manchanda, R.

AU - Pizzichini, G.

AU - Takagishi, K.

AU - Yamauchi, M.

PY - 2003/12/10

Y1 - 2003/12/10

N2 - A bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst (GRB) was detected by the French Gamma Telescope (FREGATE) and localized with the Wide Field X-ray Monitor (WXM) and Soft X-ray Camera (SXC) instruments on the High Energy Transient Explorer 2 satellite (HETE-2) at 11:18:34.03 UT (40714.03 SOD) on 2002 December 11. The WXM flight software localized the burst to a 14′ radius; this was relayed to the astronomical community 22 s after the start of the burst. Ground analysis of WXM and SXC data provided refined localizations; the latter can be described as a circle with a radius of 2′ centered at R.A. 08 h09m00s, decl. 06°44′20″ (J2000.0). GRB 021211 consists of a single, FRED-like pulse with a duration t90 ≈ 2.3 s at high energies (85-400 keV), which increases to t90 ≈ 8.5 s at low energies (2-10 keV). The peak photon number and photon energy fluxes in the 2-400 keV band are (34.0 ± 1.8) photons cm-2 s-1 and (1.68 ± 0.11) × 10-6 ergs cm-2 s-1, respectively. The energy fluences in the 2-30 and 30-400 keV energy bands are 5X = (1.36 ± 0.05) × 10-6 ergs cm-2 and Sγ = (2.17 ± 0.15) × 10-6 ergs cm-2, respectively. Thus, GRB 021211 is an X-ray-rich GRB (SX/Sγ = 0.63 > 0.32). The average spectrum of the burst is well fitted by a Band function (low-energy power-law index α = -0.805-0.105 +0.112; high-energy power-law index β = -2.37-0.31 +0.18 and energy of the peak of the spectrum in νFν, E peak obs = 46.8-5.1 +5.8 keV). The near-real-time optical follow-up of GRB 021211 made possible by HETE-2 led to the detection of an optical afterglow for what otherwise would quite likely have been classified as an "optically dark" GRB, since the optical transient faded rapidly (from R < 14 to R ≈ 19) within the first 20 minutes, and was fainter than R ≈ 23 within 24 hr after the burst. GRB 021211 demonstrates that some fraction of burst afterglows are optically dark because their optical afterglows at times greater than 1 hr after the burst are very faint, and previously have often escaped detection. Such bursts are "optically dim" rather than truly optically dark. GRB 021211 also shows that even such optically dim bursts can have very bright optical afterglows at times less than 20 minutes after the burst.

AB - A bright, X-ray-rich gamma-ray burst (GRB) was detected by the French Gamma Telescope (FREGATE) and localized with the Wide Field X-ray Monitor (WXM) and Soft X-ray Camera (SXC) instruments on the High Energy Transient Explorer 2 satellite (HETE-2) at 11:18:34.03 UT (40714.03 SOD) on 2002 December 11. The WXM flight software localized the burst to a 14′ radius; this was relayed to the astronomical community 22 s after the start of the burst. Ground analysis of WXM and SXC data provided refined localizations; the latter can be described as a circle with a radius of 2′ centered at R.A. 08 h09m00s, decl. 06°44′20″ (J2000.0). GRB 021211 consists of a single, FRED-like pulse with a duration t90 ≈ 2.3 s at high energies (85-400 keV), which increases to t90 ≈ 8.5 s at low energies (2-10 keV). The peak photon number and photon energy fluxes in the 2-400 keV band are (34.0 ± 1.8) photons cm-2 s-1 and (1.68 ± 0.11) × 10-6 ergs cm-2 s-1, respectively. The energy fluences in the 2-30 and 30-400 keV energy bands are 5X = (1.36 ± 0.05) × 10-6 ergs cm-2 and Sγ = (2.17 ± 0.15) × 10-6 ergs cm-2, respectively. Thus, GRB 021211 is an X-ray-rich GRB (SX/Sγ = 0.63 > 0.32). The average spectrum of the burst is well fitted by a Band function (low-energy power-law index α = -0.805-0.105 +0.112; high-energy power-law index β = -2.37-0.31 +0.18 and energy of the peak of the spectrum in νFν, E peak obs = 46.8-5.1 +5.8 keV). The near-real-time optical follow-up of GRB 021211 made possible by HETE-2 led to the detection of an optical afterglow for what otherwise would quite likely have been classified as an "optically dark" GRB, since the optical transient faded rapidly (from R < 14 to R ≈ 19) within the first 20 minutes, and was fainter than R ≈ 23 within 24 hr after the burst. GRB 021211 demonstrates that some fraction of burst afterglows are optically dark because their optical afterglows at times greater than 1 hr after the burst are very faint, and previously have often escaped detection. Such bursts are "optically dim" rather than truly optically dark. GRB 021211 also shows that even such optically dim bursts can have very bright optical afterglows at times less than 20 minutes after the burst.

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