Growth of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 films: Unravelling the mysteries by in-situ X-ray imaging

Bradley West, Michael Stuckelberger, Lei Chen, Robert Lovelett, Barry Lai, Jorg Maser, William Shafarman, Mariana Bertoni

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


In-situ investigations of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) absorber layers during growth have the potential to provide insight into the origin behind elemental segregation and defect formation at grain boundaries and in grain cores. Our study focuses on CIGS films grown by an industrially relevant precursor reaction process. An in-situ stage developed for these synchrotron studies is used to image the growth of CIGS layers with nanoscale resolution. Utilizing synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence, we are able to rapidly monitor changes in elemental distribution and particle diffusion, with better than 200 nm spatial resolution throughout the 25 minute process. In this work, we highlight some challenges associated with this type of measurements and discuss solutions identified to overcome them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781509056057
StatePublished - May 25 2018
Event44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017 - Washington, United States
Duration: Jun 25 2017Jun 30 2017


Other44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017
CountryUnited States


  • CIGS
  • Growth
  • In-situ
  • Synchrotron
  • XRF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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