Granule formation and structure from single drop impact on heterogeneous powder beds

Tianxiang Gao, Arun Sundar S. Singaravelu, Sarang Oka, Rohit Ramachandran, František Štepánek, Nikhilesh Chawla, Heather Emady

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Single drop impact of liquid on a static powder bed was studied to investigate the granule formation mechanism, droplet penetration time, as well as the characterization of granules (morphology, surface structure and internal structure). Water was used as the liquid and two pharmaceutical powders, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and acetaminophen (APAP), were mixed to make heterogeneous powder beds. The complete drop impact and penetration was recorded by a high speed camera. Two granule formation mechanisms that have been identified previously occurred: Spreading and Tunneling. Spreading occurred for mixtures with an APAP amount of less than 20%, while Tunneling started to occur when the APAP amount increased above 20%. With an increase of APAP concentration, the mean particle size decreased, drop penetration time increased, and the granules formed became smaller in size, which was in good agreement with previous literature. The granule morphology, surface structure, and internal structure were characterized by a prism method with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray microtomography, respectively. The Spreading mechanism produced flat disks with a porous internal structure, while the Tunneling mechanism produced round granules with a dense internal structure. There is a clear trend of decreasing porosity and increasing roundness of granules made from heterogeneous mixtures within the transition from Spreading to Tunneling. It is believed that the mean particle size of the powder bed and the powder-liquid contact angle are the predominant factors in influencing the formation mechanism, drop penetration time, and granule properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-66
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Volume552
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

Fingerprint

Acetaminophen
Powders
Particle Size
X-Ray Microtomography
Porosity
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Water
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • Drop penetration time
  • Granule morphology
  • Granule porosity
  • Single drop granulation
  • Spreading
  • Tunneling
  • X-ray microtomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

Granule formation and structure from single drop impact on heterogeneous powder beds. / Gao, Tianxiang; Singaravelu, Arun Sundar S.; Oka, Sarang; Ramachandran, Rohit; Štepánek, František; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Emady, Heather.

In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol. 552, No. 1-2, 01.12.2018, p. 56-66.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gao, Tianxiang ; Singaravelu, Arun Sundar S. ; Oka, Sarang ; Ramachandran, Rohit ; Štepánek, František ; Chawla, Nikhilesh ; Emady, Heather. / Granule formation and structure from single drop impact on heterogeneous powder beds. In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2018 ; Vol. 552, No. 1-2. pp. 56-66.
@article{5f8d53a87d5c49faa5c53eb674d9bee9,
title = "Granule formation and structure from single drop impact on heterogeneous powder beds",
abstract = "Single drop impact of liquid on a static powder bed was studied to investigate the granule formation mechanism, droplet penetration time, as well as the characterization of granules (morphology, surface structure and internal structure). Water was used as the liquid and two pharmaceutical powders, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and acetaminophen (APAP), were mixed to make heterogeneous powder beds. The complete drop impact and penetration was recorded by a high speed camera. Two granule formation mechanisms that have been identified previously occurred: Spreading and Tunneling. Spreading occurred for mixtures with an APAP amount of less than 20{\%}, while Tunneling started to occur when the APAP amount increased above 20{\%}. With an increase of APAP concentration, the mean particle size decreased, drop penetration time increased, and the granules formed became smaller in size, which was in good agreement with previous literature. The granule morphology, surface structure, and internal structure were characterized by a prism method with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray microtomography, respectively. The Spreading mechanism produced flat disks with a porous internal structure, while the Tunneling mechanism produced round granules with a dense internal structure. There is a clear trend of decreasing porosity and increasing roundness of granules made from heterogeneous mixtures within the transition from Spreading to Tunneling. It is believed that the mean particle size of the powder bed and the powder-liquid contact angle are the predominant factors in influencing the formation mechanism, drop penetration time, and granule properties.",
keywords = "Drop penetration time, Granule morphology, Granule porosity, Single drop granulation, Spreading, Tunneling, X-ray microtomography",
author = "Tianxiang Gao and Singaravelu, {Arun Sundar S.} and Sarang Oka and Rohit Ramachandran and František Štep{\'a}nek and Nikhilesh Chawla and Heather Emady",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.09.036",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "552",
pages = "56--66",
journal = "International Journal of Pharmaceutics",
issn = "0378-5173",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Granule formation and structure from single drop impact on heterogeneous powder beds

AU - Gao, Tianxiang

AU - Singaravelu, Arun Sundar S.

AU - Oka, Sarang

AU - Ramachandran, Rohit

AU - Štepánek, František

AU - Chawla, Nikhilesh

AU - Emady, Heather

PY - 2018/12/1

Y1 - 2018/12/1

N2 - Single drop impact of liquid on a static powder bed was studied to investigate the granule formation mechanism, droplet penetration time, as well as the characterization of granules (morphology, surface structure and internal structure). Water was used as the liquid and two pharmaceutical powders, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and acetaminophen (APAP), were mixed to make heterogeneous powder beds. The complete drop impact and penetration was recorded by a high speed camera. Two granule formation mechanisms that have been identified previously occurred: Spreading and Tunneling. Spreading occurred for mixtures with an APAP amount of less than 20%, while Tunneling started to occur when the APAP amount increased above 20%. With an increase of APAP concentration, the mean particle size decreased, drop penetration time increased, and the granules formed became smaller in size, which was in good agreement with previous literature. The granule morphology, surface structure, and internal structure were characterized by a prism method with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray microtomography, respectively. The Spreading mechanism produced flat disks with a porous internal structure, while the Tunneling mechanism produced round granules with a dense internal structure. There is a clear trend of decreasing porosity and increasing roundness of granules made from heterogeneous mixtures within the transition from Spreading to Tunneling. It is believed that the mean particle size of the powder bed and the powder-liquid contact angle are the predominant factors in influencing the formation mechanism, drop penetration time, and granule properties.

AB - Single drop impact of liquid on a static powder bed was studied to investigate the granule formation mechanism, droplet penetration time, as well as the characterization of granules (morphology, surface structure and internal structure). Water was used as the liquid and two pharmaceutical powders, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and acetaminophen (APAP), were mixed to make heterogeneous powder beds. The complete drop impact and penetration was recorded by a high speed camera. Two granule formation mechanisms that have been identified previously occurred: Spreading and Tunneling. Spreading occurred for mixtures with an APAP amount of less than 20%, while Tunneling started to occur when the APAP amount increased above 20%. With an increase of APAP concentration, the mean particle size decreased, drop penetration time increased, and the granules formed became smaller in size, which was in good agreement with previous literature. The granule morphology, surface structure, and internal structure were characterized by a prism method with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray microtomography, respectively. The Spreading mechanism produced flat disks with a porous internal structure, while the Tunneling mechanism produced round granules with a dense internal structure. There is a clear trend of decreasing porosity and increasing roundness of granules made from heterogeneous mixtures within the transition from Spreading to Tunneling. It is believed that the mean particle size of the powder bed and the powder-liquid contact angle are the predominant factors in influencing the formation mechanism, drop penetration time, and granule properties.

KW - Drop penetration time

KW - Granule morphology

KW - Granule porosity

KW - Single drop granulation

KW - Spreading

KW - Tunneling

KW - X-ray microtomography

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053815990&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053815990&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.09.036

DO - 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.09.036

M3 - Article

C2 - 30236649

AN - SCOPUS:85053815990

VL - 552

SP - 56

EP - 66

JO - International Journal of Pharmaceutics

JF - International Journal of Pharmaceutics

SN - 0378-5173

IS - 1-2

ER -