Good agricultural practices, farm performance, and input usage by smallholders: Empirical evidence from Nepal

Subir Bairagi, Ashok Mishra, Anil Giri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study examines the impact of good agricultural practices (GAP) on the farm income and fertilizer usage of smallholders in Nepal. Using qualitative variables, we first construct a GAP-index, a measure of the intensity of GAP adoption. The findings show that a GAP-index constructed through principal component analysis performs better than a GAP-index constructed with Markowitz’s portfolio method. Results reveal a positive and significant relationship between the GAP-index and farm income and a negative and significant relationship between the GAP-index and fertilizer usage. Public and private partnerships that incentivize the adoption of GAP can help increase the income of and reduce fertilizer usage by smallholders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • farm income
  • GAP-index
  • good agricultural practices (GAP)
  • input usage
  • Markowitz’s portfolio method (MPM)
  • Nepal
  • principal component analysis (PCA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Economics and Econometrics

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