Geographic Information Science

Michael F. Goodchild, Paul A. Longley

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter begins with a definition of geographic information science (GIScience). We then discuss how this research area has been influenced by recent developments in computing and data-intensive analysis, before setting out its core organizing principles from a practical perspective. The following section reflects on the key characteristics of geographic information, the problems posed by large data volumes, the relevance of geographic scale, the remit of geographic simulation, and the key achievements of GIScience to date. Our subsequent review of changing scientific practices and the changing problems facing scientists addresses developments in high-performance computing, heightened awareness of the social context of geographic information systems (GISystems), and the importance of neogeography in providing new data sources, in driving the need for new techniques, and in heightening a human-centric perspective.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Regional Science
Subtitle of host publicationSecond and Extended Edition: With 238 Figures and 78 Tables
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9783662607237
ISBN (Print)9783662607220
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Big data
  • Fourth paradigm
  • GIScience
  • GISystem
  • Spatial analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Social Sciences(all)


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