The recent identification of a new nanovirus, pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus, from pea in Germany prompted us to survey wild and cultivated legumes for nanovirus infections in several European countries. This led to the identification of two new nanoviruses: black medic leaf roll virus (BMLRV) and pea yellow stunt virus (PYSV), each considered a putative new species. The complete genomes of a PYSV isolate from Austria and three BMLRV isolates from Austria, Azerbaijan and Sweden were sequenced. In addition, the genomes of five isolates of faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) from Azerbaijan and Spain and those of four faba bean necrotic stunt virus (FBNSV) isolates from Azerbaijan were completely sequenced, leading to the first identification of FBNSV occurring in Europe. Sequence analyses uncovered evolutionary relationships, extensive reassortment and potential remnants of mixed nanovirus infections, as well as intra- and intercomponent recombination events within the nanovirus genomes. In some virus isolates, diverse types of the same genome component (paralogues) were observed, a type of genome complexity not described previously for any member of the family Nanoviridae. Moreover, infectious and aphid-transmissible nanoviruses from cloned genomic DNAs of FBNYV and BMLRV were reconstituted that, for the first time, allow experimental reassortments for studying the genome functions and evolution of these nanoviruses.
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