Genetic Diversity, Heteroplasmy, and Recombination in Mitochondrial Genomes of Daphnia pulex, Daphnia pulicaria, and Daphnia obtusa

Zhiqiang Ye, Chaoxian Zhao, R. Taylor Raborn, Man Lin, Wen Wei, Yue Hao, Michael Lynch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Genetic variants of mitochondrial DNA at the individual (heteroplasmy) and population (polymorphism) levels provide insight into their roles in multiple cellular and evolutionary processes. However, owing to the paucity of genome-wide data at the within-individual and population levels, the broad patterns of these two forms of variation remain poorly understood. Here, we analyze 1,804 complete mitochondrial genome sequences from Daphnia pulex, Daphnia pulicaria, and Daphnia obtusa. Extensive heteroplasmy is observed in D. obtusa, where the high level of intraclonal divergence must have resulted from a biparental-inheritance event, and recombination in the mitochondrial genome is apparent, although perhaps not widespread. Global samples of D. pulex reveal remarkably low mitochondrial effective population sizes, <3% of those for the nuclear genome. In addition, levels of population diversity in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are uncorrelated across populations, suggesting an idiosyncratic evolutionary history of mitochondria in D. pulex. These population-genetic features appear to be a consequence of background selection associated with highly deleterious mutations arising in the strongly linked mitochondrial genome, which is consistent with polymorphism and divergence data suggesting a predominance of strong purifying selection. Nonetheless, the fixation of mildly deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial genome also appears to be driving positive selection on genes encoded in the nuclear genome whose products are deployed in the mitochondrion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbermsac059
JournalMolecular biology and evolution
Volume39
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Daphnia
  • heteroplasmy
  • hybridization
  • mitochondria
  • nucleotide diversity
  • purifying selection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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