Genetic analysis suggests dispersal among chimpanzees in a fragmented forest landscape in Uganda

Maureen S. McCarthy, Jack D. Lester, Kevin Langergraber, Craig B. Stanford, Linda Vigilant

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Habitat fragmentation is a leading threat to global biodiversity. Dispersal plays a key role in gene flow and population viability, but the impact of fragmentation on dispersal patterns remains poorly understood. Among chimpanzees, males typically remain in their natal communities while females often disperse. However, habitat loss and fragmentation may cause severe ecological disruptions, potentially resulting in decreased fitness benefits of male philopatry and limited female dispersal ability. To investigate this issue, we genotyped nearly 900 non-invasively collected chimpanzee fecal samples across a fragmented forest habitat that may function as a corridor between two large continuous forests in Uganda, and used the spatial associations among co-sampled genotypes to attribute a total of 229 individuals to 10 distinct communities, including 9 communities in the corridor habitat and 1 in continuous forest. We then used parentage analyses to infer instances of between-community dispersal. Of the 115 parent–offspring dyads detected with confidence, members of 39% (N = 26) of mother–daughter dyads were found in different communities, while members of 10% (N = 5) of father–son dyads were found in different communities. We also found direct evidence for one dispersal event that occurred during the study period, as a female's sample found first in one community was found multiple times in another community 19 months later. These findings suggest that even in fragmented habitats, chimpanzee males remain in their natal communities while females tend to disperse. Corridor enhancement in unprotected forest fragments could help maintain gene flow in chimpanzees and other species amid anthropogenic pressures.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article numbere22902
    JournalAmerican Journal of Primatology
    Volume80
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Sep 1 2018

    Fingerprint

    genetic analysis
    Uganda
    Pan troglodytes
    habitat fragmentation
    genetic techniques and protocols
    gene flow
    habitat corridor
    philopatry
    parentage
    forest habitats
    habitat loss
    habitat
    habitat destruction
    fragmentation
    viability
    genotype
    fitness
    biodiversity
    sampling
    habitats

    Keywords

    • chimpanzee
    • dispersal
    • ecological corridor
    • genetic tracking
    • habitat fragmentation
    • Pan troglodytes

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
    • Animal Science and Zoology

    Cite this

    Genetic analysis suggests dispersal among chimpanzees in a fragmented forest landscape in Uganda. / McCarthy, Maureen S.; Lester, Jack D.; Langergraber, Kevin; Stanford, Craig B.; Vigilant, Linda.

    In: American Journal of Primatology, Vol. 80, No. 9, e22902, 01.09.2018.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    McCarthy, Maureen S. ; Lester, Jack D. ; Langergraber, Kevin ; Stanford, Craig B. ; Vigilant, Linda. / Genetic analysis suggests dispersal among chimpanzees in a fragmented forest landscape in Uganda. In: American Journal of Primatology. 2018 ; Vol. 80, No. 9.
    @article{0f8e7f16e7f349d9b968550b46a18050,
    title = "Genetic analysis suggests dispersal among chimpanzees in a fragmented forest landscape in Uganda",
    abstract = "Habitat fragmentation is a leading threat to global biodiversity. Dispersal plays a key role in gene flow and population viability, but the impact of fragmentation on dispersal patterns remains poorly understood. Among chimpanzees, males typically remain in their natal communities while females often disperse. However, habitat loss and fragmentation may cause severe ecological disruptions, potentially resulting in decreased fitness benefits of male philopatry and limited female dispersal ability. To investigate this issue, we genotyped nearly 900 non-invasively collected chimpanzee fecal samples across a fragmented forest habitat that may function as a corridor between two large continuous forests in Uganda, and used the spatial associations among co-sampled genotypes to attribute a total of 229 individuals to 10 distinct communities, including 9 communities in the corridor habitat and 1 in continuous forest. We then used parentage analyses to infer instances of between-community dispersal. Of the 115 parent–offspring dyads detected with confidence, members of 39{\%} (N = 26) of mother–daughter dyads were found in different communities, while members of 10{\%} (N = 5) of father–son dyads were found in different communities. We also found direct evidence for one dispersal event that occurred during the study period, as a female's sample found first in one community was found multiple times in another community 19 months later. These findings suggest that even in fragmented habitats, chimpanzee males remain in their natal communities while females tend to disperse. Corridor enhancement in unprotected forest fragments could help maintain gene flow in chimpanzees and other species amid anthropogenic pressures.",
    keywords = "chimpanzee, dispersal, ecological corridor, genetic tracking, habitat fragmentation, Pan troglodytes",
    author = "McCarthy, {Maureen S.} and Lester, {Jack D.} and Kevin Langergraber and Stanford, {Craig B.} and Linda Vigilant",
    year = "2018",
    month = "9",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1002/ajp.22902",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "80",
    journal = "American Journal of Primatology",
    issn = "0275-2565",
    publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
    number = "9",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Genetic analysis suggests dispersal among chimpanzees in a fragmented forest landscape in Uganda

    AU - McCarthy, Maureen S.

    AU - Lester, Jack D.

    AU - Langergraber, Kevin

    AU - Stanford, Craig B.

    AU - Vigilant, Linda

    PY - 2018/9/1

    Y1 - 2018/9/1

    N2 - Habitat fragmentation is a leading threat to global biodiversity. Dispersal plays a key role in gene flow and population viability, but the impact of fragmentation on dispersal patterns remains poorly understood. Among chimpanzees, males typically remain in their natal communities while females often disperse. However, habitat loss and fragmentation may cause severe ecological disruptions, potentially resulting in decreased fitness benefits of male philopatry and limited female dispersal ability. To investigate this issue, we genotyped nearly 900 non-invasively collected chimpanzee fecal samples across a fragmented forest habitat that may function as a corridor between two large continuous forests in Uganda, and used the spatial associations among co-sampled genotypes to attribute a total of 229 individuals to 10 distinct communities, including 9 communities in the corridor habitat and 1 in continuous forest. We then used parentage analyses to infer instances of between-community dispersal. Of the 115 parent–offspring dyads detected with confidence, members of 39% (N = 26) of mother–daughter dyads were found in different communities, while members of 10% (N = 5) of father–son dyads were found in different communities. We also found direct evidence for one dispersal event that occurred during the study period, as a female's sample found first in one community was found multiple times in another community 19 months later. These findings suggest that even in fragmented habitats, chimpanzee males remain in their natal communities while females tend to disperse. Corridor enhancement in unprotected forest fragments could help maintain gene flow in chimpanzees and other species amid anthropogenic pressures.

    AB - Habitat fragmentation is a leading threat to global biodiversity. Dispersal plays a key role in gene flow and population viability, but the impact of fragmentation on dispersal patterns remains poorly understood. Among chimpanzees, males typically remain in their natal communities while females often disperse. However, habitat loss and fragmentation may cause severe ecological disruptions, potentially resulting in decreased fitness benefits of male philopatry and limited female dispersal ability. To investigate this issue, we genotyped nearly 900 non-invasively collected chimpanzee fecal samples across a fragmented forest habitat that may function as a corridor between two large continuous forests in Uganda, and used the spatial associations among co-sampled genotypes to attribute a total of 229 individuals to 10 distinct communities, including 9 communities in the corridor habitat and 1 in continuous forest. We then used parentage analyses to infer instances of between-community dispersal. Of the 115 parent–offspring dyads detected with confidence, members of 39% (N = 26) of mother–daughter dyads were found in different communities, while members of 10% (N = 5) of father–son dyads were found in different communities. We also found direct evidence for one dispersal event that occurred during the study period, as a female's sample found first in one community was found multiple times in another community 19 months later. These findings suggest that even in fragmented habitats, chimpanzee males remain in their natal communities while females tend to disperse. Corridor enhancement in unprotected forest fragments could help maintain gene flow in chimpanzees and other species amid anthropogenic pressures.

    KW - chimpanzee

    KW - dispersal

    KW - ecological corridor

    KW - genetic tracking

    KW - habitat fragmentation

    KW - Pan troglodytes

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85051014848&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85051014848&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1002/ajp.22902

    DO - 10.1002/ajp.22902

    M3 - Article

    VL - 80

    JO - American Journal of Primatology

    JF - American Journal of Primatology

    SN - 0275-2565

    IS - 9

    M1 - e22902

    ER -