Genetic Analyses Suggest Male Philopatry and Territoriality in Savanna-Woodland Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Ugalla, Tanzania

Deborah L. Moore, Kevin Langergraber, Linda Vigilant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Socioecological models predict that as resources become more sparsely distributed, primate populations will occur at lower densities and this demographic shift may have some effect on social structure. In savanna-woodland habitats, chimpanzees live at lower densities and in larger home ranges compared to forested habitats, presumably because of more widely dispersed food availability. These factors may result in chimpanzee home ranges being economically undefendable, leading to a reduction in male philopatry and territoriality. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 237 fecal samples collected from Ugalla at 12 autosomal and 13 Y-chromosome microsatellite loci. We considered individuals that were sampled together at the same place and time to have been associating in the same party; with repeated sampling of an individual in different places and with different associates, we established which individuals belonged to the same community and the community locations. We identified 44 females and 69 males, carrying four different Y-chromosome haplotypes. One Y-chromosome haplotype was prevalent and found throughout the study site. The three rarer haplotypes occurred in spatially discrete clusters, which corresponded with the locations of communities identified through analysis of autosomal genotypes. Together with an observation of an aggressive interaction, these results suggest that, like chimpanzees living in species-typical forest habitats, the chimpanzees of Ugalla are organized into male philopatric, territorial communities, and that this social structure is reliably expressed under a variety of ecological conditions. This study reminds us that primate social structures may be adaptive across a range of habitats, and/or subject to phylogenetic constraint.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-397
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Primatology
Volume36
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

Fingerprint

philopatry
territoriality
Tanzania
Pan troglodytes
savanna
savannas
woodlands
woodland
Y chromosome
social structure
chromosome
haplotypes
habitat
home range
primate
Primates
habitats
forest habitats
food availability
genotype

Keywords

  • Chimpanzees
  • Genetics
  • Philopatry
  • Savanna-woodland
  • Social structure
  • Socioecology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Genetic Analyses Suggest Male Philopatry and Territoriality in Savanna-Woodland Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Ugalla, Tanzania. / Moore, Deborah L.; Langergraber, Kevin; Vigilant, Linda.

In: International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 36, No. 2, 01.04.2015, p. 377-397.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{a299151781de4b9ea77c9cbe3938060e,
title = "Genetic Analyses Suggest Male Philopatry and Territoriality in Savanna-Woodland Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Ugalla, Tanzania",
abstract = "Socioecological models predict that as resources become more sparsely distributed, primate populations will occur at lower densities and this demographic shift may have some effect on social structure. In savanna-woodland habitats, chimpanzees live at lower densities and in larger home ranges compared to forested habitats, presumably because of more widely dispersed food availability. These factors may result in chimpanzee home ranges being economically undefendable, leading to a reduction in male philopatry and territoriality. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 237 fecal samples collected from Ugalla at 12 autosomal and 13 Y-chromosome microsatellite loci. We considered individuals that were sampled together at the same place and time to have been associating in the same party; with repeated sampling of an individual in different places and with different associates, we established which individuals belonged to the same community and the community locations. We identified 44 females and 69 males, carrying four different Y-chromosome haplotypes. One Y-chromosome haplotype was prevalent and found throughout the study site. The three rarer haplotypes occurred in spatially discrete clusters, which corresponded with the locations of communities identified through analysis of autosomal genotypes. Together with an observation of an aggressive interaction, these results suggest that, like chimpanzees living in species-typical forest habitats, the chimpanzees of Ugalla are organized into male philopatric, territorial communities, and that this social structure is reliably expressed under a variety of ecological conditions. This study reminds us that primate social structures may be adaptive across a range of habitats, and/or subject to phylogenetic constraint.",
keywords = "Chimpanzees, Genetics, Philopatry, Savanna-woodland, Social structure, Socioecology",
author = "Moore, {Deborah L.} and Kevin Langergraber and Linda Vigilant",
year = "2015",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s10764-015-9830-8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "36",
pages = "377--397",
journal = "International Journal of Primatology",
issn = "0164-0291",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genetic Analyses Suggest Male Philopatry and Territoriality in Savanna-Woodland Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Ugalla, Tanzania

AU - Moore, Deborah L.

AU - Langergraber, Kevin

AU - Vigilant, Linda

PY - 2015/4/1

Y1 - 2015/4/1

N2 - Socioecological models predict that as resources become more sparsely distributed, primate populations will occur at lower densities and this demographic shift may have some effect on social structure. In savanna-woodland habitats, chimpanzees live at lower densities and in larger home ranges compared to forested habitats, presumably because of more widely dispersed food availability. These factors may result in chimpanzee home ranges being economically undefendable, leading to a reduction in male philopatry and territoriality. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 237 fecal samples collected from Ugalla at 12 autosomal and 13 Y-chromosome microsatellite loci. We considered individuals that were sampled together at the same place and time to have been associating in the same party; with repeated sampling of an individual in different places and with different associates, we established which individuals belonged to the same community and the community locations. We identified 44 females and 69 males, carrying four different Y-chromosome haplotypes. One Y-chromosome haplotype was prevalent and found throughout the study site. The three rarer haplotypes occurred in spatially discrete clusters, which corresponded with the locations of communities identified through analysis of autosomal genotypes. Together with an observation of an aggressive interaction, these results suggest that, like chimpanzees living in species-typical forest habitats, the chimpanzees of Ugalla are organized into male philopatric, territorial communities, and that this social structure is reliably expressed under a variety of ecological conditions. This study reminds us that primate social structures may be adaptive across a range of habitats, and/or subject to phylogenetic constraint.

AB - Socioecological models predict that as resources become more sparsely distributed, primate populations will occur at lower densities and this demographic shift may have some effect on social structure. In savanna-woodland habitats, chimpanzees live at lower densities and in larger home ranges compared to forested habitats, presumably because of more widely dispersed food availability. These factors may result in chimpanzee home ranges being economically undefendable, leading to a reduction in male philopatry and territoriality. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 237 fecal samples collected from Ugalla at 12 autosomal and 13 Y-chromosome microsatellite loci. We considered individuals that were sampled together at the same place and time to have been associating in the same party; with repeated sampling of an individual in different places and with different associates, we established which individuals belonged to the same community and the community locations. We identified 44 females and 69 males, carrying four different Y-chromosome haplotypes. One Y-chromosome haplotype was prevalent and found throughout the study site. The three rarer haplotypes occurred in spatially discrete clusters, which corresponded with the locations of communities identified through analysis of autosomal genotypes. Together with an observation of an aggressive interaction, these results suggest that, like chimpanzees living in species-typical forest habitats, the chimpanzees of Ugalla are organized into male philopatric, territorial communities, and that this social structure is reliably expressed under a variety of ecological conditions. This study reminds us that primate social structures may be adaptive across a range of habitats, and/or subject to phylogenetic constraint.

KW - Chimpanzees

KW - Genetics

KW - Philopatry

KW - Savanna-woodland

KW - Social structure

KW - Socioecology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84937760659&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84937760659&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10764-015-9830-8

DO - 10.1007/s10764-015-9830-8

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84937760659

VL - 36

SP - 377

EP - 397

JO - International Journal of Primatology

JF - International Journal of Primatology

SN - 0164-0291

IS - 2

ER -