Graphene quantum dots provide a platform for manipulating electron behaviors in two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials. Most previous works were of the "forward"type in that the objective was to solve various confinement, transport, and scattering problems with given structures that can be generated by, e.g., applying an external electrical field. There are applications such as cloaking or superscattering where the challenging problem of inverse design needs to be solved: Finding a quantum-dot structure according to certain desired functional characteristics. A brute-force search of the system configuration based directly on the solutions of the Dirac equation is computationally infeasible. We articulate a machine-learning approach to addressing the inverse-design problem where artificial neural networks subject to physical constraints are exploited to replace the rigorous Dirac equation solver. In particular, we focus on the problem of designing a quantum-dot structure to generate both cloaking and superscattering in terms of the scattering efficiency as a function of the energy. We construct a physical loss function that enables accurate prediction of the scattering characteristics. We demonstrate that, in the regime of Klein tunneling, the scattering efficiency can be designed to vary over two orders of magnitude, allowing any scattering curve to be generated from a proper combination of the gate potentials. Our physics-based machine-learning approach can be a powerful design tool for 2D Dirac material-based electronics.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Physical Review B|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2022|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics