Gender-identity typologies are related to gender-typing, friendships, and social-emotional adjustment in Dutch emerging adults

Joyce J. Endendijk, Naomi C.Z. Andrews, Dawn E. England, Carol Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The current study examined emerging adults’ gender identity and its link with several gender-related and social outcomes, by using a novel dual-identity approach that was originally developed in children. Dutch emerging adults between 18 and 25 years old (N = 318, M age = 21.73, SD = 2.02; 51% female) indicated their similarity to the own-gender group and the other-gender group to assess gender identity. They completed questionnaires assessing gender-typed behavior (internalized sexualization, toughness, emotional stoicism) and attitudes (i.e., sexism); friendship efficacy and ability; and social-emotional adjustment. Cluster analysis on the gender-identity items revealed four gender-identity types: (a) feeling similar to one’s own gender, but not to the other gender (Own-GS); (b) feeling similar to both one’s own and the other gender (Both-GS); (c) feeling dissimilar to one’s own gender (Low-Own-GS); and (d) feeling similar to neither gender (Low-GS). Own-GS and Low-GS adults were most gender-typed in their behavior and showed sexist attitudes. Both-GS adults felt efficacious and were highly able to relate to both genders, whereas the other groups felt efficacious and were able to relate to only one gender (Own-GS, Low-Own-GS), or to neither gender (Low-GS). Low-Own-GS and Low-GS were least well-adjusted social-emotionally. Findings suggest that identifying with one’s own gender is helpful for certain aspects of social-emotional adjustment but that also identifying with the other gender provides the advantage of flexible social and interpersonal skills and egalitarian gender attitudes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Social Adjustment
friendship
typology
gender
Emotions
Emotional Adjustment

Keywords

  • adjustment
  • dual identity
  • emerging adults
  • Gender identity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

Cite this

Gender-identity typologies are related to gender-typing, friendships, and social-emotional adjustment in Dutch emerging adults. / Endendijk, Joyce J.; Andrews, Naomi C.Z.; England, Dawn E.; Martin, Carol.

In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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