Gender-Based Violence Among HIV-Positive Women in Kazakhstan: Prevalence, Types, and Associated Risk and Protective Factors

Tina Jiwatram-Negrón, Nabila El-Bassel, Sholpan Primbetova, Assel Terlikbayeva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


This article examines the prevalence and associated multilevel risk and protective factors of intimate and nonintimate partner violence among a sample of 249 HIV-positive women in Kazakhstan. We found high prevalence of both lifetime intimate partner violence (52%) and nonintimate partner violence (30%). Together, nearly 60% experienced at least one incident of violence by either an intimate or nonintimate partner (gender-based violence [GBV]). In the multivariate analyses, we found associations between several individual, interpersonal, and socio-structural risk factors and GBV. Findings provide direction for practice, policy, and future research to address the intersection of GBV and HIV in Kazakhstan.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1570-1590
Number of pages21
JournalViolence Against Women
Issue number13
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • gender-based violence
  • HIV
  • intimate partner violence
  • Kazakhstan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Law

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