This article examines the prevalence and associated multilevel risk and protective factors of intimate and nonintimate partner violence among a sample of 249 HIV-positive women in Kazakhstan. We found high prevalence of both lifetime intimate partner violence (52%) and nonintimate partner violence (30%). Together, nearly 60% experienced at least one incident of violence by either an intimate or nonintimate partner (gender-based violence [GBV]). In the multivariate analyses, we found associations between several individual, interpersonal, and socio-structural risk factors and GBV. Findings provide direction for practice, policy, and future research to address the intersection of GBV and HIV in Kazakhstan.
- gender-based violence
- intimate partner violence
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Gender Studies
- Sociology and Political Science