Gender and temporality in interpersonal systems

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This essay provides a nonessentializing account of how gender affects the social construction of time in communicative interactions. Niklas Luhmann's systems theory serves as the theoretical framework for explaining how time is constructed through communication codes. Using Luhmann's model, the essay argues that gender is a communication code that operates to align social participants' perspectives towards a socially constructed "present." However, the essay notes that participants' experience of that present will be contingent upon the specific cultural and historical criteria that constitute their use of the gender code. The criteria specific to Anglo-American culture are used to illustrate how this instanciation of the gender code might affect temporal experience.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-43
Number of pages23
JournalSymbolic Interaction
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Communication
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences(all)


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