5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Growth of gallium nitride at low temperatures broadens the opportunity for its integration into optoelectronic devices that contain thermally sensitive substrates or active layers. As temperature is a very critical growth parameter, changes in crystallinity, defect density, optical, and structural properties are expected as temperatures fall below those typical of molecular beam epitaxy growth. In this contribution, energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography and epitaxy, a molecular beam epitaxy method that utilizes energetic neutral atomic nitrogen as the active nitrogen species, is used to grow gallium nitride directly on nitridized sapphire at temperatures between 800 and 200 °C. Photospectroscopy, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry are applied to determine changes in optical, morphological and structural properties induced by the unconventional low-temperature growth process. As anticipated, we observe that defect density, disorder, and light absorptance increase as growth temperature decreases. Interestingly, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence reveal the presence of the cubic phase of gallium nitride in films grown at low temperatures under a nitrogen-rich regime, which differs from growth conditions reported by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy. These discrepancies are presented in a critical review of several studies reporting the stabilization of the cubic phase over the energetically-favored hexagonal phase, with emphasis on relation to growth temperature, Ga/N flux ratio and surface kinetics during growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-30
Number of pages6
JournalThin Solid Films
Volume642
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 30 2017

Fingerprint

Gallium nitride
gallium nitrides
Molecular beam epitaxy
molecular beam epitaxy
Growth temperature
Nitrogen
Defect density
Structural properties
Photoluminescence
Temperature
Optical properties
Atomic beams
nitrogen
Aluminum Oxide
Growth kinetics
Epitaxial growth
Sapphire
Optoelectronic devices
Lithography
X ray diffraction analysis

Keywords

  • Characterization GaN
  • Cubic GaN
  • Enable
  • GaN thin films
  • Low temperature GaN
  • Molecular beam epitaxy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Jeffries, A. M., Ding, L., Williams, J. J., Williamson, T. L., Hoffbauer, M. A., Honsberg, C., & Bertoni, M. (2017). Gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures. Thin Solid Films, 642, 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2017.07.066

Gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures. / Jeffries, A. M.; Ding, L.; Williams, J. J.; Williamson, T. L.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Honsberg, Christiana; Bertoni, Mariana.

In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 642, 30.11.2017, p. 25-30.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jeffries, AM, Ding, L, Williams, JJ, Williamson, TL, Hoffbauer, MA, Honsberg, C & Bertoni, M 2017, 'Gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures', Thin Solid Films, vol. 642, pp. 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2017.07.066
Jeffries AM, Ding L, Williams JJ, Williamson TL, Hoffbauer MA, Honsberg C et al. Gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures. Thin Solid Films. 2017 Nov 30;642:25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2017.07.066
Jeffries, A. M. ; Ding, L. ; Williams, J. J. ; Williamson, T. L. ; Hoffbauer, M. A. ; Honsberg, Christiana ; Bertoni, Mariana. / Gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures. In: Thin Solid Films. 2017 ; Vol. 642. pp. 25-30.
@article{3638bb611aa3458e8206747c96eaa96b,
title = "Gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures",
abstract = "Growth of gallium nitride at low temperatures broadens the opportunity for its integration into optoelectronic devices that contain thermally sensitive substrates or active layers. As temperature is a very critical growth parameter, changes in crystallinity, defect density, optical, and structural properties are expected as temperatures fall below those typical of molecular beam epitaxy growth. In this contribution, energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography and epitaxy, a molecular beam epitaxy method that utilizes energetic neutral atomic nitrogen as the active nitrogen species, is used to grow gallium nitride directly on nitridized sapphire at temperatures between 800 and 200 °C. Photospectroscopy, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry are applied to determine changes in optical, morphological and structural properties induced by the unconventional low-temperature growth process. As anticipated, we observe that defect density, disorder, and light absorptance increase as growth temperature decreases. Interestingly, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence reveal the presence of the cubic phase of gallium nitride in films grown at low temperatures under a nitrogen-rich regime, which differs from growth conditions reported by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy. These discrepancies are presented in a critical review of several studies reporting the stabilization of the cubic phase over the energetically-favored hexagonal phase, with emphasis on relation to growth temperature, Ga/N flux ratio and surface kinetics during growth.",
keywords = "Characterization GaN, Cubic GaN, Enable, GaN thin films, Low temperature GaN, Molecular beam epitaxy",
author = "Jeffries, {A. M.} and L. Ding and Williams, {J. J.} and Williamson, {T. L.} and Hoffbauer, {M. A.} and Christiana Honsberg and Mariana Bertoni",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1016/j.tsf.2017.07.066",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "642",
pages = "25--30",
journal = "Thin Solid Films",
issn = "0040-6090",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures

AU - Jeffries, A. M.

AU - Ding, L.

AU - Williams, J. J.

AU - Williamson, T. L.

AU - Hoffbauer, M. A.

AU - Honsberg, Christiana

AU - Bertoni, Mariana

PY - 2017/11/30

Y1 - 2017/11/30

N2 - Growth of gallium nitride at low temperatures broadens the opportunity for its integration into optoelectronic devices that contain thermally sensitive substrates or active layers. As temperature is a very critical growth parameter, changes in crystallinity, defect density, optical, and structural properties are expected as temperatures fall below those typical of molecular beam epitaxy growth. In this contribution, energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography and epitaxy, a molecular beam epitaxy method that utilizes energetic neutral atomic nitrogen as the active nitrogen species, is used to grow gallium nitride directly on nitridized sapphire at temperatures between 800 and 200 °C. Photospectroscopy, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry are applied to determine changes in optical, morphological and structural properties induced by the unconventional low-temperature growth process. As anticipated, we observe that defect density, disorder, and light absorptance increase as growth temperature decreases. Interestingly, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence reveal the presence of the cubic phase of gallium nitride in films grown at low temperatures under a nitrogen-rich regime, which differs from growth conditions reported by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy. These discrepancies are presented in a critical review of several studies reporting the stabilization of the cubic phase over the energetically-favored hexagonal phase, with emphasis on relation to growth temperature, Ga/N flux ratio and surface kinetics during growth.

AB - Growth of gallium nitride at low temperatures broadens the opportunity for its integration into optoelectronic devices that contain thermally sensitive substrates or active layers. As temperature is a very critical growth parameter, changes in crystallinity, defect density, optical, and structural properties are expected as temperatures fall below those typical of molecular beam epitaxy growth. In this contribution, energetic neutral atomic-beam lithography and epitaxy, a molecular beam epitaxy method that utilizes energetic neutral atomic nitrogen as the active nitrogen species, is used to grow gallium nitride directly on nitridized sapphire at temperatures between 800 and 200 °C. Photospectroscopy, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry are applied to determine changes in optical, morphological and structural properties induced by the unconventional low-temperature growth process. As anticipated, we observe that defect density, disorder, and light absorptance increase as growth temperature decreases. Interestingly, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence reveal the presence of the cubic phase of gallium nitride in films grown at low temperatures under a nitrogen-rich regime, which differs from growth conditions reported by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy. These discrepancies are presented in a critical review of several studies reporting the stabilization of the cubic phase over the energetically-favored hexagonal phase, with emphasis on relation to growth temperature, Ga/N flux ratio and surface kinetics during growth.

KW - Characterization GaN

KW - Cubic GaN

KW - Enable

KW - GaN thin films

KW - Low temperature GaN

KW - Molecular beam epitaxy

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85029509906&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85029509906&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.tsf.2017.07.066

DO - 10.1016/j.tsf.2017.07.066

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85029509906

VL - 642

SP - 25

EP - 30

JO - Thin Solid Films

JF - Thin Solid Films

SN - 0040-6090

ER -