G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) regulate seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) by phosphorylating agonist-activated 7TMRs. Recently, we have reported that GRK2 can function as a negative regulator of insulin action by interfering with G protein-q/11 α-subunit (Gαq/11) signaling, causing decreased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation. We have also reported that chronic endothelin-1 (ET-1) treatment leads to heterologous desensitization of insulin signaling with decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and Gαq/11, and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the current study, we have investigated the role of GRK2 in chronic ET-1-induced insulin resistance. Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation was inhibited by pretreatment with ET-1 for 24 h, and we found that this inhibitory effect was rescued by microinjection of anti-GRK2 antibody or GRK2 short interfering RNA. We further found that GRK2 mediates the inhibitory effects of ET-1 by two distinct mechanisms. Firstly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of either wild-type (WT)- or kinase-deficient (KD)-GRK2 inhibited Gαq/11 signaling, including tyrosine phosphorylation of Gαq/11 and cdc42-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. Secondly, ET-1 treatment caused Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-1 protein degradation. Overexpression of KD-GRK2, but not WT-GRK2, inhibited ET-1-induced serine 612 phosphorylation of IRS-1 and restored activation of this pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that GRK2 mediates ET-1-induced insulin resistance by 1) inhibition of Gαq/11 activation, and this effect is independent of GRK2 kinase activity, and 2) GRK2 kinase activity-mediated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and degradation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology