Telecommunications technologies and their associated infrastructure play a critical role in shaping regions. From economic development and competitiveness, to shaping how citizens participate in a digital society, broadband and wireless telecommunications systems are key general purpose technologies that will continue to influence regions for many years to come. The purpose of this chapter is to explore key challenges in the continued development of the telecommunications ecosystem highlighting how future technologies might impact regions. Challenges discussed include: (1) infrastructure deployment, (2) shifting needs and uses of telecommunications systems, and, (3) future technologies. Implications for regional research and policy are addressed.