Functionalized Biochar with Superacidity and Hydrophobicity as a Highly Efficient Catalyst in the Synthesis of Renewable High-Density Fuels

Yao Zhong, Qiang Deng, Qing Yao, Chengxi Lu, Peixin Zhang, Huan Li, Jun Wang, Zheling Zeng, Ji Jun Zou, Ji Jun Zou, Shuguang Deng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Developing sulfonic-acid-supported catalysts with superacidity and hydrophobicity is of great importance for many acid-catalyzed reactions where H2O is generated. Herein, a novel hydrophobic superacidic biochar is first reported via a diazo grafting method using halogen-substituted amino-benzenesulfonic acids and 4-tert-butylaniline as sulfonating and hydrophobic reagents, respectively. The resultant biochar has a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (400-700 m2·g-1), acid concentration (up to 1.5 mmol·g-1), and H2O contact angle (above 134°). The synergistic effect of superacidity and hydrophobicity greatly improves the catalytic alkylation reactions of 4-ethylphenol-phenylmethanol and 2-methylfuran-cyclic ketones for the synthesis of renewable high-density fuels. The hydrophobic superacidic biochar shows higher catalytic conversion and selectivity than those of its counterparts without hydrophobicity or superacidity. Meanwhile, it is also far superior to commercial Amberlyst-15 and the traditional sulfonated biochar. Finally, the catalyst is stable without obvious activity reduction after cycling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7785-7794
Number of pages10
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Volume8
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020

Keywords

  • alkylation
  • biochar
  • high-density biofuel
  • hydrophobicity
  • superacidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Functionalized Biochar with Superacidity and Hydrophobicity as a Highly Efficient Catalyst in the Synthesis of Renewable High-Density Fuels'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this