From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: Implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions

Jenessa R. Shapiro, Steven Neuberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

198 Scopus citations

Abstract

More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions-the target of the threat (the self/one's group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors propose that these threats constitute the core of the broader stereotype threat construct and provide the foundation for understanding additional, as of yet uncharacterized, stereotype threats. The proposed threats likely differentially peril those with different stigmatizable characteristics, have different eliciting conditions and moderators, are mediated by somewhat different processes, are coped with and compensated for in different ways, and require different interventions to overcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)107-130
Number of pages24
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Review
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2007

Keywords

  • Stereotype threat
  • Stereotyped attitudes
  • Stereotyped behaviors
  • Stigma
  • Threat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

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