Free-air CO2 enrichment effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration of sorghum

J. M. Triggs, B. A. Kimball, P. J. Pinter, G. W. Wall, M. M. Conley, T. J. Brooks, R. L. LaMorte, N. R. Adam, M. J. Ottman, A. D. Matthias, S. W. Leavitt, Randall Cerveny

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) likely will affect future water requirements of most plants, including agricultural crops. This research quantifies such effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET) of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench, a C4 grain crop) using a residual energy balance approach. During the summer and autumn of 1998 and 1999, sorghum was grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) conditions near Maricopa, Arizona. Latent heat flux (λET) was determined by subtracting soil heat flux (G0) and sensible heat flux (H) from net radiation (Rn) values in both Control CO2 plots (about 370 μmol mol-1) and FACE plots (Control + 200 μmol mol -1). Rn was observed using net radiometers. G0 was measured with soil heat flux plates at a depth of 10 mm, then corrected for heat storage above the plates. H was determined using measurements of air temperature from aspirated psychrometers, leaf temperature from infrared thermometers, and wind data from a three-cup anemometer. Both FACE and Control plots were divided into semicircular halves to allow a well-watered (Wet) treatment and a drought-stressed (Dry) treatment. This allowed comparisons of the FACE effect on ET in normal and water-stressed conditions. Under Wet conditions, FACE decreased λET by 13.8±1.8% in 1998, and 11.8±1.9% in 1999. Drought-stress resulted in a reduction in λET of 8.5±3.7% for the FACE treatments in 1998, but an increase in λET of 10.5±5.1% in 1999. When soil water was readily available, midday canopy temperatures in the FACE plots were increased by 1.47±0.09°C in 1998, and 1.85±0.20°C in 1999, indicative of increased stomatal resistance due to CO2 enrichment. These data suggest that soil water availability is a determining factor for the FACE effect. Water use efficiency (WUE) increased about 28% due to elevated CO 2 under Wet conditions due to a savings of water for about the same growth, whereas under Dry conditions it increased about 16% due to much greater relative growth on only a slightly higher amount of water.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-79
Number of pages17
JournalAgricultural and Forest Meteorology
Volume124
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 20 2004

Fingerprint

sorghum
Sorghum (Poaceae)
energy balance
evapotranspiration
carbon dioxide
air
heat
heat flux
soil water
effect
water
anemometer
drought stress
net radiation
psychrometers
latent heat flux
sensible heat flux
anemometers
water use efficiency
water availability

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • CO
  • Energy balance
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Micrometeorology
  • Sorghum
  • Sorghum bicolor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Free-air CO2 enrichment effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration of sorghum. / Triggs, J. M.; Kimball, B. A.; Pinter, P. J.; Wall, G. W.; Conley, M. M.; Brooks, T. J.; LaMorte, R. L.; Adam, N. R.; Ottman, M. J.; Matthias, A. D.; Leavitt, S. W.; Cerveny, Randall.

In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 124, No. 1-2, 20.07.2004, p. 63-79.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Triggs, JM, Kimball, BA, Pinter, PJ, Wall, GW, Conley, MM, Brooks, TJ, LaMorte, RL, Adam, NR, Ottman, MJ, Matthias, AD, Leavitt, SW & Cerveny, R 2004, 'Free-air CO2 enrichment effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration of sorghum', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 124, no. 1-2, pp. 63-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.01.005
Triggs, J. M. ; Kimball, B. A. ; Pinter, P. J. ; Wall, G. W. ; Conley, M. M. ; Brooks, T. J. ; LaMorte, R. L. ; Adam, N. R. ; Ottman, M. J. ; Matthias, A. D. ; Leavitt, S. W. ; Cerveny, Randall. / Free-air CO2 enrichment effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration of sorghum. In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2004 ; Vol. 124, No. 1-2. pp. 63-79.
@article{e59dbd71f77e41f790ead1c3682737ba,
title = "Free-air CO2 enrichment effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration of sorghum",
abstract = "Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) likely will affect future water requirements of most plants, including agricultural crops. This research quantifies such effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET) of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) M{\"o}ench, a C4 grain crop) using a residual energy balance approach. During the summer and autumn of 1998 and 1999, sorghum was grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) conditions near Maricopa, Arizona. Latent heat flux (λET) was determined by subtracting soil heat flux (G0) and sensible heat flux (H) from net radiation (Rn) values in both Control CO2 plots (about 370 μmol mol-1) and FACE plots (Control + 200 μmol mol -1). Rn was observed using net radiometers. G0 was measured with soil heat flux plates at a depth of 10 mm, then corrected for heat storage above the plates. H was determined using measurements of air temperature from aspirated psychrometers, leaf temperature from infrared thermometers, and wind data from a three-cup anemometer. Both FACE and Control plots were divided into semicircular halves to allow a well-watered (Wet) treatment and a drought-stressed (Dry) treatment. This allowed comparisons of the FACE effect on ET in normal and water-stressed conditions. Under Wet conditions, FACE decreased λET by 13.8±1.8{\%} in 1998, and 11.8±1.9{\%} in 1999. Drought-stress resulted in a reduction in λET of 8.5±3.7{\%} for the FACE treatments in 1998, but an increase in λET of 10.5±5.1{\%} in 1999. When soil water was readily available, midday canopy temperatures in the FACE plots were increased by 1.47±0.09°C in 1998, and 1.85±0.20°C in 1999, indicative of increased stomatal resistance due to CO2 enrichment. These data suggest that soil water availability is a determining factor for the FACE effect. Water use efficiency (WUE) increased about 28{\%} due to elevated CO 2 under Wet conditions due to a savings of water for about the same growth, whereas under Dry conditions it increased about 16{\%} due to much greater relative growth on only a slightly higher amount of water.",
keywords = "Climate change, CO, Energy balance, Evapotranspiration, Micrometeorology, Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor",
author = "Triggs, {J. M.} and Kimball, {B. A.} and Pinter, {P. J.} and Wall, {G. W.} and Conley, {M. M.} and Brooks, {T. J.} and LaMorte, {R. L.} and Adam, {N. R.} and Ottman, {M. J.} and Matthias, {A. D.} and Leavitt, {S. W.} and Randall Cerveny",
year = "2004",
month = "7",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.01.005",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "124",
pages = "63--79",
journal = "Agricultural and Forest Meteorology",
issn = "0168-1923",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Free-air CO2 enrichment effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration of sorghum

AU - Triggs, J. M.

AU - Kimball, B. A.

AU - Pinter, P. J.

AU - Wall, G. W.

AU - Conley, M. M.

AU - Brooks, T. J.

AU - LaMorte, R. L.

AU - Adam, N. R.

AU - Ottman, M. J.

AU - Matthias, A. D.

AU - Leavitt, S. W.

AU - Cerveny, Randall

PY - 2004/7/20

Y1 - 2004/7/20

N2 - Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) likely will affect future water requirements of most plants, including agricultural crops. This research quantifies such effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET) of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench, a C4 grain crop) using a residual energy balance approach. During the summer and autumn of 1998 and 1999, sorghum was grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) conditions near Maricopa, Arizona. Latent heat flux (λET) was determined by subtracting soil heat flux (G0) and sensible heat flux (H) from net radiation (Rn) values in both Control CO2 plots (about 370 μmol mol-1) and FACE plots (Control + 200 μmol mol -1). Rn was observed using net radiometers. G0 was measured with soil heat flux plates at a depth of 10 mm, then corrected for heat storage above the plates. H was determined using measurements of air temperature from aspirated psychrometers, leaf temperature from infrared thermometers, and wind data from a three-cup anemometer. Both FACE and Control plots were divided into semicircular halves to allow a well-watered (Wet) treatment and a drought-stressed (Dry) treatment. This allowed comparisons of the FACE effect on ET in normal and water-stressed conditions. Under Wet conditions, FACE decreased λET by 13.8±1.8% in 1998, and 11.8±1.9% in 1999. Drought-stress resulted in a reduction in λET of 8.5±3.7% for the FACE treatments in 1998, but an increase in λET of 10.5±5.1% in 1999. When soil water was readily available, midday canopy temperatures in the FACE plots were increased by 1.47±0.09°C in 1998, and 1.85±0.20°C in 1999, indicative of increased stomatal resistance due to CO2 enrichment. These data suggest that soil water availability is a determining factor for the FACE effect. Water use efficiency (WUE) increased about 28% due to elevated CO 2 under Wet conditions due to a savings of water for about the same growth, whereas under Dry conditions it increased about 16% due to much greater relative growth on only a slightly higher amount of water.

AB - Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) likely will affect future water requirements of most plants, including agricultural crops. This research quantifies such effects on the energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET) of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Möench, a C4 grain crop) using a residual energy balance approach. During the summer and autumn of 1998 and 1999, sorghum was grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) conditions near Maricopa, Arizona. Latent heat flux (λET) was determined by subtracting soil heat flux (G0) and sensible heat flux (H) from net radiation (Rn) values in both Control CO2 plots (about 370 μmol mol-1) and FACE plots (Control + 200 μmol mol -1). Rn was observed using net radiometers. G0 was measured with soil heat flux plates at a depth of 10 mm, then corrected for heat storage above the plates. H was determined using measurements of air temperature from aspirated psychrometers, leaf temperature from infrared thermometers, and wind data from a three-cup anemometer. Both FACE and Control plots were divided into semicircular halves to allow a well-watered (Wet) treatment and a drought-stressed (Dry) treatment. This allowed comparisons of the FACE effect on ET in normal and water-stressed conditions. Under Wet conditions, FACE decreased λET by 13.8±1.8% in 1998, and 11.8±1.9% in 1999. Drought-stress resulted in a reduction in λET of 8.5±3.7% for the FACE treatments in 1998, but an increase in λET of 10.5±5.1% in 1999. When soil water was readily available, midday canopy temperatures in the FACE plots were increased by 1.47±0.09°C in 1998, and 1.85±0.20°C in 1999, indicative of increased stomatal resistance due to CO2 enrichment. These data suggest that soil water availability is a determining factor for the FACE effect. Water use efficiency (WUE) increased about 28% due to elevated CO 2 under Wet conditions due to a savings of water for about the same growth, whereas under Dry conditions it increased about 16% due to much greater relative growth on only a slightly higher amount of water.

KW - Climate change

KW - CO

KW - Energy balance

KW - Evapotranspiration

KW - Micrometeorology

KW - Sorghum

KW - Sorghum bicolor

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=2942737352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=2942737352&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.01.005

DO - 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.01.005

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:2942737352

VL - 124

SP - 63

EP - 79

JO - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

JF - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

SN - 0168-1923

IS - 1-2

ER -