Formative Exchange in the Andean Titicaca Basin: Isotopic Camelid Data and Lithic Sourcing: Evidence From the Taraco Peninsula, Bolivia

Christine A. Hastorf, Katherine M. Moore, Irene E. Smail, Rachael Penfil, Patrick Ryan Williams, Danielle J. Riebe, Kelly J. Knudson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The Andean mountains have a mosaic distribution of resources, and no one place has everything a community requires for subsistence, social life and ritual. Therefore, from the very beginning of human habitation there is evidence for short-and long-distance movement and trade. Settled societies in the Andes most commonly used llama caravans that crisscrossed the mountains and highland valleys, although these are hard to identify. Here we present several data sets that inform about southern Lake Titicaca Formative movement of goods and caravans in the build-up to the caravan-driven polity of Middle Horizon Tiwanaku. Plant remains reveal the increasing tempo of goods movement. Olivine basalt results from XRF analyses clarify the extent of goods movement from their sources in the basin. Finally, strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope results from Formative camelid teeth inform us about the extent of long-and short-distance caravan movement emanating out of a shoreline ceremonial center.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNawpa Pacha
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Andes
  • basalt
  • carbon isotope analysis
  • exchange
  • oxygen isotope analysis
  • South America
  • strontium isotope analysis
  • XRF analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • Archaeology

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