Formation of titanium nitride by annealing Ag/Ti structures in ammonia ambient

Y. L. Zou, Terry Alford, Yuxiao Zeng, F. Deng, S. S. Lau, T. Laursen, A. I. Amali, B. M. Ullrich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Titanium nitride thin films have been formed in the temperature range of 400-600 °C by annealing Ag/Ti bilayer films on oxidized Si substrates in an ammonia ambient. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and Auger depth profiling have shown the segregation of Ti at the surface and at interface. Ti diffused out through the silver layer and reacted with ammonia to form a TiN layer that self-encapsulated the silver film. A near-bamboo structure in the encapsulated Ag films was observed using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Such a structure is expected to improve the electromigration resistance of the silver metallization. The kinetics of the Ti-nitride growth was studied by investigating its dependence on time, temperature, and Ag/Ti bilayer thicknesses. We also found that two processes govern the nitridation reaction. A dominant nitridation process takes place initially at fast growth rates. After 15 min anneals the nitride growth can be described by x2 = B t, where B is a parabolic rate constant for the growing nitride phase. The parabolic rate constants follow an Arrhenius behavior with an apparent activation energy of ∼0.4 eV. These observations led to further discussion regarding the diffusion mechanism as well as the rate-limiting step.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3321-3327
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume82
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 1 1997

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titanium nitrides
ammonia
nitrides
annealing
silver
electromigration
backscattering
activation energy
transmission electron microscopy
temperature
kinetics
thin films
spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Zou, Y. L., Alford, T., Zeng, Y., Deng, F., Lau, S. S., Laursen, T., ... Ullrich, B. M. (1997). Formation of titanium nitride by annealing Ag/Ti structures in ammonia ambient. Journal of Applied Physics, 82(7), 3321-3327.

Formation of titanium nitride by annealing Ag/Ti structures in ammonia ambient. / Zou, Y. L.; Alford, Terry; Zeng, Yuxiao; Deng, F.; Lau, S. S.; Laursen, T.; Amali, A. I.; Ullrich, B. M.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 82, No. 7, 01.10.1997, p. 3321-3327.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zou, YL, Alford, T, Zeng, Y, Deng, F, Lau, SS, Laursen, T, Amali, AI & Ullrich, BM 1997, 'Formation of titanium nitride by annealing Ag/Ti structures in ammonia ambient', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 3321-3327.
Zou YL, Alford T, Zeng Y, Deng F, Lau SS, Laursen T et al. Formation of titanium nitride by annealing Ag/Ti structures in ammonia ambient. Journal of Applied Physics. 1997 Oct 1;82(7):3321-3327.
Zou, Y. L. ; Alford, Terry ; Zeng, Yuxiao ; Deng, F. ; Lau, S. S. ; Laursen, T. ; Amali, A. I. ; Ullrich, B. M. / Formation of titanium nitride by annealing Ag/Ti structures in ammonia ambient. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 1997 ; Vol. 82, No. 7. pp. 3321-3327.
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