Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study

Jessie Gruner, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. Objective: To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Design: Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants/setting: Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Main outcome measure: Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Statistical analyses: Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Results: Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Conclusions: Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu labeling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - May 31 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Food Preferences
Food and Beverages
menu planning
Beverages
cross-sectional studies
beverages
Cross-Sectional Studies
Restaurants
purchasing
restaurants
Logistic Models
Fats
Fast Foods
Nutrition Policy
Food Chain
fast food restaurants
Vegetables
Dietary Guidelines
Fruit
sociodemographic characteristics

Keywords

  • Fast food
  • Food environment
  • Food purchases
  • Menu labeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{28e3692886ba4123a116fd1b9daaaa66,
title = "Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study",
abstract = "Background: By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. Objective: To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Design: Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants/setting: Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Main outcome measure: Side, beverage, and entr{\'e}e purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100{\%} fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entr{\'e}es were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Statistical analyses: Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Results: Healthier sides were selected by 7.5{\%} of users vs 2.5{\%} of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0{\%} of users vs 11.6{\%} of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entr{\'e}es were selected by 28.3{\%} of users vs 30.1{\%} of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entr{\'e}es. Conclusions: Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu labeling.",
keywords = "Fast food, Food environment, Food purchases, Menu labeling",
author = "Jessie Gruner and Punam Ohri-Vachaspati",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1016/j.jand.2016.12.012",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics",
issn = "2212-2672",
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T1 - Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers

T2 - Results from a Cross-Sectional Study

AU - Gruner, Jessie

AU - Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

PY - 2016/5/31

Y1 - 2016/5/31

N2 - Background: By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. Objective: To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Design: Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants/setting: Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Main outcome measure: Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Statistical analyses: Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Results: Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Conclusions: Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu labeling.

AB - Background: By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. Objective: To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Design: Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants/setting: Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Main outcome measure: Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Statistical analyses: Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Results: Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Conclusions: Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu labeling.

KW - Fast food

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