Fog composition was investigated at three sites in Norway, one in suburban Oslo and two coastal sites in the area of the Mongstad refinery. Overall fog frequency during the study periods was low. Fog pH was around 5 with slightly lower values at Hakadal, the suburban site, compared to the coastal sites, which were slightly above 5. Major ions at the coastal sites were sodium and chloride consistent with the marine environment. The ion chemistry at the suburban site was dominated by ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, consistent with fogs in anthropogenically impacted environments. Overall concentrations of major ions were very low, orders of magnitude lower than those in polluted urban fogs. Organic matter concentrations were also low (<. 3. mgC/L) consistent with limited anthropogenic impact and little biogenic activity in the winter months. Selected amine concentrations were determined and ranged from nanomolar concentrations for ethylamines to several hundred nanomolar concentrations for dimethylamine, the most abundant amine investigated. While N-nitrosodimehylamine was detected in fog, the concentrations were very low in the fogs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atmospheric Science