Fluorescence analysis of a standard fulvic acid and tertiary treated wastewater

Paul Westerhoff, W. Chen, M. Esparza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fluorescence measurements (emission scan, synchronous scan, and excitation-emission matrix [EEM] scan) were used to compare characteristics of two sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from distinctly different origins: (i) A standard fulvic acid from the Suwannee River (SRF sample) and (ii) an unfractionated DOC sample from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (MWW sample). Two methods were demonstrated that quantitatively differentiated allochthonous DOC (e.g., SRF) from autochthonous DOC (e.g., MWW). The MWW sample exhibited fluorescence peaks undetected in the SRF sample, at shorter wavelength pairs (e.g., 220 nm:300 to 350 nm) than the dominant peaks in the SRF sample (e.g., 220 nm:450 nm). These peaks may be associated with base or neutral fractions, potentially enriched in organic nitrogen. Effects of DOC concentration and solution pH were discussed. A simple procedure was recommended (pH = 3; DOC = 1 mg/L; dilution with 0.01 M KCl) that minimizes the need to correct spectra for inner-filter absorbance effects. A method, using synchronous fluorescence, to estimate the percentage of DOC from different sources when mixed together was also presented. Further work to understand the structural properties of DOC that fluoresce in wastewater samples, especially at shorter EEM wavelength pairs, will enable water managers to better understand the influence of wastewater on DOC in receiving waters (e.g., rivers, lakes).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2037-2046
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Volume30
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

fulvic acid
Organic carbon
dissolved organic carbon
Wastewater
fluorescence
Fluorescence
wastewater
Acids
Rivers
wavelength
analysis
Wavelength
matrix
Water
organic nitrogen
absorbance
Wastewater treatment
Dilution
Lakes
river water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Fluorescence analysis of a standard fulvic acid and tertiary treated wastewater. / Westerhoff, Paul; Chen, W.; Esparza, M.

In: Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2001, p. 2037-2046.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c83d8d022b0847bdb12dd3c3f338de1e,
title = "Fluorescence analysis of a standard fulvic acid and tertiary treated wastewater",
abstract = "Fluorescence measurements (emission scan, synchronous scan, and excitation-emission matrix [EEM] scan) were used to compare characteristics of two sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from distinctly different origins: (i) A standard fulvic acid from the Suwannee River (SRF sample) and (ii) an unfractionated DOC sample from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (MWW sample). Two methods were demonstrated that quantitatively differentiated allochthonous DOC (e.g., SRF) from autochthonous DOC (e.g., MWW). The MWW sample exhibited fluorescence peaks undetected in the SRF sample, at shorter wavelength pairs (e.g., 220 nm:300 to 350 nm) than the dominant peaks in the SRF sample (e.g., 220 nm:450 nm). These peaks may be associated with base or neutral fractions, potentially enriched in organic nitrogen. Effects of DOC concentration and solution pH were discussed. A simple procedure was recommended (pH = 3; DOC = 1 mg/L; dilution with 0.01 M KCl) that minimizes the need to correct spectra for inner-filter absorbance effects. A method, using synchronous fluorescence, to estimate the percentage of DOC from different sources when mixed together was also presented. Further work to understand the structural properties of DOC that fluoresce in wastewater samples, especially at shorter EEM wavelength pairs, will enable water managers to better understand the influence of wastewater on DOC in receiving waters (e.g., rivers, lakes).",
author = "Paul Westerhoff and W. Chen and M. Esparza",
year = "2001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "30",
pages = "2037--2046",
journal = "Journal of Environmental Quality",
issn = "0047-2425",
publisher = "ASA/CSSA/SSSA",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fluorescence analysis of a standard fulvic acid and tertiary treated wastewater

AU - Westerhoff, Paul

AU - Chen, W.

AU - Esparza, M.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Fluorescence measurements (emission scan, synchronous scan, and excitation-emission matrix [EEM] scan) were used to compare characteristics of two sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from distinctly different origins: (i) A standard fulvic acid from the Suwannee River (SRF sample) and (ii) an unfractionated DOC sample from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (MWW sample). Two methods were demonstrated that quantitatively differentiated allochthonous DOC (e.g., SRF) from autochthonous DOC (e.g., MWW). The MWW sample exhibited fluorescence peaks undetected in the SRF sample, at shorter wavelength pairs (e.g., 220 nm:300 to 350 nm) than the dominant peaks in the SRF sample (e.g., 220 nm:450 nm). These peaks may be associated with base or neutral fractions, potentially enriched in organic nitrogen. Effects of DOC concentration and solution pH were discussed. A simple procedure was recommended (pH = 3; DOC = 1 mg/L; dilution with 0.01 M KCl) that minimizes the need to correct spectra for inner-filter absorbance effects. A method, using synchronous fluorescence, to estimate the percentage of DOC from different sources when mixed together was also presented. Further work to understand the structural properties of DOC that fluoresce in wastewater samples, especially at shorter EEM wavelength pairs, will enable water managers to better understand the influence of wastewater on DOC in receiving waters (e.g., rivers, lakes).

AB - Fluorescence measurements (emission scan, synchronous scan, and excitation-emission matrix [EEM] scan) were used to compare characteristics of two sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from distinctly different origins: (i) A standard fulvic acid from the Suwannee River (SRF sample) and (ii) an unfractionated DOC sample from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (MWW sample). Two methods were demonstrated that quantitatively differentiated allochthonous DOC (e.g., SRF) from autochthonous DOC (e.g., MWW). The MWW sample exhibited fluorescence peaks undetected in the SRF sample, at shorter wavelength pairs (e.g., 220 nm:300 to 350 nm) than the dominant peaks in the SRF sample (e.g., 220 nm:450 nm). These peaks may be associated with base or neutral fractions, potentially enriched in organic nitrogen. Effects of DOC concentration and solution pH were discussed. A simple procedure was recommended (pH = 3; DOC = 1 mg/L; dilution with 0.01 M KCl) that minimizes the need to correct spectra for inner-filter absorbance effects. A method, using synchronous fluorescence, to estimate the percentage of DOC from different sources when mixed together was also presented. Further work to understand the structural properties of DOC that fluoresce in wastewater samples, especially at shorter EEM wavelength pairs, will enable water managers to better understand the influence of wastewater on DOC in receiving waters (e.g., rivers, lakes).

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035211275&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035211275&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 11790011

AN - SCOPUS:0035211275

VL - 30

SP - 2037

EP - 2046

JO - Journal of Environmental Quality

JF - Journal of Environmental Quality

SN - 0047-2425

IS - 6

ER -