In this full, research category paper, we examined the differences in subject-related role identities of first-generation and continuing-generation college students by gender. Subject-related identities have been linked to important educational outcomes and consist of identifying as a math person, physics person, and an engineer. These identities are formed through interrelated factors such as interest in the subject, beliefs about being able to understand the subject material (i.e., performance/competence beliefs), and internal/external recognition. The data came from a large-scale survey administered in introductory to engineering courses at 32 four-year ABET accredited institutions. Women in particular were significantly more likely to be interested in mathematics compared to men. Additionally, our study indicates that women first-generation and continuing-generation college students were less likely to be recognized externally and internally as a physics person, while men continuing-generation college students were more likely to have external and internal recognition in physics. Both men first-generation and continuing-generation college student groups were more likely to feel confident in their abilities to understand and do well in physics. Men in both groups were more likely to feel confident in their abilities to understand and do well in engineering compared to women in either group. Both women and men who are first-generation college students were less likely to feel like engineers in their first-semester of their engineering program. These results illustrate the areas of strength with which first-generation and continuing-generation college students enter engineering programs, as well as the areas of continued support for their developing identities.