The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ∼750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ∼6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.
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