An adaptive feedforward control system has been evaluated for use in functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) systems. The control system, which utilizes neural network techniques, was used to generate isometric muscle contractions to track a periodic torque trajectory signal. The evaluation of the control system was performed using percutaneous intramuscular electrodes to stimulate the quadriceps muscles of spinal cord injured adolescents. Results of the evaluation indicate that the control system automatically customized its parameters for controlling isometric muscle torque in a particular muscle and that the parameters were adapted on-line to account for changes in muscle properties due to fatigue. This study demonstrates that this control system may play an important role in the development of practical FNS systems that are capable of automatically adjusting stimulation parameters to fit the needs of a particular individual at a given time.
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