Examining the Instrumental-Expressive Continuum of Homicides: Incorporating the Effects of Gender, Victim-Offender Relationships, and Weapon Choice

Kathleen Talbot, Terry Allen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


The current study examines and extends the instrumental-expressive categories of homicide. Correspondence analysis of 30 years of homicide data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports focuses on gender differences, the victim-offender relationship and weapon choice among the types of homicide. Findings reveal that the weapon type used in homicides depends on the sex and relationship of the offender and victim. Results also support a revised instrumental-expressive homicide continuum that includes offensive-defensive categories. The enhanced homicide dimensions include instrumental-offensive, expressive-offensive, and expressive-defensive homicides.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)298-317
Number of pages20
JournalHomicide Studies
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2014



  • correspondence analysis
  • gender
  • homicide
  • victim-offender relationship
  • weapon choice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)
  • Law

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