Examining elemental surface enrichment in ultrafine aerosol particles using analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy

Andrew Maynard, Yasuo Ito, Ilke Arslan, Anthony T. Zimmer, Nigel Browning, Alan Nicholls

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The surface structure and chemistry of ultrafine aerosol particles (typically particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter) play key roles in determining physical and chemical behavior, and is relevant to fields as diverse as nanotechnology and aerosol toxicity. Analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is one of the few analytical methods available that is potentially capable of characterizing ultrafine particles at subnanometer resolution. We propose a method that enables STEM to characterize and quantify elemental surface enrichment within radially symmetrical particles at a spatial resolution of less than 1 nm when used in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Although the method relies on a number of assumptions for complete particle characterization, estimation of the depth of an outer layer of elemental enrichment should be possible with relatively few assumptions. A preliminary investigation of the method has been carried out using particles from gas metal arc welding on mild steel. Using the analysis method, we were able to characterize Si and O enrichment in a number of particles. Two particles were investigated extensively using EELS and EDS analysis. Both techniques allowed surface enrichment of Si to be identified and quantified in the particles, although the relatively poor sensitivity of EDS was a limiting factor in the analysis. EELS allowed rapid data collection and enabled surface enrichment of Si and O to be characterized. Using a simple model to describe elemental composition with radial position, it was estimated that Si and O were enriched in an outer layer around the particle approximately 1 nm deep.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-381
Number of pages17
JournalAerosol Science and Technology
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2004
Externally publishedYes

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Electron energy loss spectroscopy
Aerosols
Particles (particulate matter)
transmission electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy
aerosol
Transmission electron microscopy
Scanning electron microscopy
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
spectroscopy
Gas metal arc welding
Surface chemistry
Nanotechnology
Surface structure
Carbon steel
Toxicity
energy
electron
Chemical analysis
Ultrafine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

Examining elemental surface enrichment in ultrafine aerosol particles using analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy. / Maynard, Andrew; Ito, Yasuo; Arslan, Ilke; Zimmer, Anthony T.; Browning, Nigel; Nicholls, Alan.

In: Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 4, 04.2004, p. 365-381.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Maynard, Andrew ; Ito, Yasuo ; Arslan, Ilke ; Zimmer, Anthony T. ; Browning, Nigel ; Nicholls, Alan. / Examining elemental surface enrichment in ultrafine aerosol particles using analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy. In: Aerosol Science and Technology. 2004 ; Vol. 38, No. 4. pp. 365-381.
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