Evolution of dosage compensation in Anolis carolinensis, a reptile with XX/XY chromosomal sex determination

Shawn M. Rupp, Timothy H. Webster, Kimberly C. Olney, Elizabeth D. Hutchins, Kenro Kusumi, Melissa Wilson Sayres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

In species with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the degradation of one of the sex chromosomes will result in unequal gene expression between the sexes (e.g. between XX females and XY males) and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Dosage compensation is a process whereby genes on the sex chromosomes achieve equal gene expression. We compared genomewide levels of transcription between males and females, and between the X chromosome and the autosomes in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. We present evidence for dosage compensation between the sexes, and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. When dividing the X chromosome into regions based on linkage groups, we discovered that genes in the first reported X-linked region, anole linkage group b (LGb), exhibit complete dosage compensation, although the rest of the X-linked genes exhibit incomplete dosage compensation. Our data further suggest that the mechanism of this dosage compensation is upregulation of the X chromosome in males. We report that approximately 10% of coding genes, most of which are on the autosomes, are differentially expressed between males and females. In addition, genes on the X chromosome exhibited higher ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution than autosomal genes, consistent with the fast-X effect. Our results from the green anole add an additional observation of dosage compensation in a species with XX/XY sex determination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-240
Number of pages10
JournalGenome Biology and Evolution
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Keywords

  • Dosage compensation
  • Fast-X
  • RNA-seq
  • Sex chromosomes
  • Sex-biased expression
  • X chromosome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics

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