Evidence for montmorillonite or its compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars

Benton C. Clark, R. E. Arvidson, R. Gellert, R. V. Morris, D. W. Ming, L. Richter, Steven Ruff, J. R. Michalski, W. H. Farrand, A. S. Yen, K. E. Herkenhoff, R. Li, S. W. Squyres, C. Schröder, G. Klingelhöfer, James Bell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During its exploration of the Columbia Hills, the Mars Exploration Rover "Spirit" encountered several similar samples that are distinctly different from Martian meteorites and known Gusev crater soils, rocks, and sediments. Occurring in a variety of contexts and locations, these "Independence class" samples are rough-textured, iron-poor (equivalent FeO ∼ 4 wt%), have high Al/Si ratios, and often contain unexpectedly high concentrations of one or more minor or trace elements (including Cr, Ni, Cu, Sr, and Y). Apart from accessory minerals, the major component common to these samples has a compositional profile of major and minor elements which is similar to the smectite montmorillonite, implicating this mineral, or its compositional equivalent. Infrared thermal emission spectra do not indicate the presence of crystalline smectite. One of these samples was found spatially associated with a ferric sulfate-enriched soil horizon, possibly indicating a genetic relationship between these disparate types of materials. Compared to the nearby Wishstone and Watchtower class rocks, major aqueous alteration involving mineral dissolution and mobilization with consequent depletions of certain elements is implied for this setting and may be undetectable by remote sensing from orbit because of the small scale of the occurrences and obscuration by mantling with soil and dust.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberE06S01
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research E: Planets
Volume112
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 2007

Fingerprint

Bentonite
Columbia (Orbiter)
montmorillonite
smectite
mars
Minerals
Mars
Soils
Martian meteorite
soils
mineral alteration
accessory mineral
minerals
soil horizon
Rocks
rock
Meteorites
crater
mobilization
soil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Evidence for montmorillonite or its compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars. / Clark, Benton C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Gellert, R.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Richter, L.; Ruff, Steven; Michalski, J. R.; Farrand, W. H.; Yen, A. S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Li, R.; Squyres, S. W.; Schröder, C.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Bell, James.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, Vol. 112, No. 6, E06S01, 20.06.2007.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Clark, BC, Arvidson, RE, Gellert, R, Morris, RV, Ming, DW, Richter, L, Ruff, S, Michalski, JR, Farrand, WH, Yen, AS, Herkenhoff, KE, Li, R, Squyres, SW, Schröder, C, Klingelhöfer, G & Bell, J 2007, 'Evidence for montmorillonite or its compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars', Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, vol. 112, no. 6, E06S01. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002756
Clark, Benton C. ; Arvidson, R. E. ; Gellert, R. ; Morris, R. V. ; Ming, D. W. ; Richter, L. ; Ruff, Steven ; Michalski, J. R. ; Farrand, W. H. ; Yen, A. S. ; Herkenhoff, K. E. ; Li, R. ; Squyres, S. W. ; Schröder, C. ; Klingelhöfer, G. ; Bell, James. / Evidence for montmorillonite or its compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars. In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets. 2007 ; Vol. 112, No. 6.
@article{cf853c59a7c147ed96b1f62dabbc52fe,
title = "Evidence for montmorillonite or its compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars",
abstract = "During its exploration of the Columbia Hills, the Mars Exploration Rover {"}Spirit{"} encountered several similar samples that are distinctly different from Martian meteorites and known Gusev crater soils, rocks, and sediments. Occurring in a variety of contexts and locations, these {"}Independence class{"} samples are rough-textured, iron-poor (equivalent FeO ∼ 4 wt{\%}), have high Al/Si ratios, and often contain unexpectedly high concentrations of one or more minor or trace elements (including Cr, Ni, Cu, Sr, and Y). Apart from accessory minerals, the major component common to these samples has a compositional profile of major and minor elements which is similar to the smectite montmorillonite, implicating this mineral, or its compositional equivalent. Infrared thermal emission spectra do not indicate the presence of crystalline smectite. One of these samples was found spatially associated with a ferric sulfate-enriched soil horizon, possibly indicating a genetic relationship between these disparate types of materials. Compared to the nearby Wishstone and Watchtower class rocks, major aqueous alteration involving mineral dissolution and mobilization with consequent depletions of certain elements is implied for this setting and may be undetectable by remote sensing from orbit because of the small scale of the occurrences and obscuration by mantling with soil and dust.",
author = "Clark, {Benton C.} and Arvidson, {R. E.} and R. Gellert and Morris, {R. V.} and Ming, {D. W.} and L. Richter and Steven Ruff and Michalski, {J. R.} and Farrand, {W. H.} and Yen, {A. S.} and Herkenhoff, {K. E.} and R. Li and Squyres, {S. W.} and C. Schr{\"o}der and G. Klingelh{\"o}fer and James Bell",
year = "2007",
month = "6",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1029/2006JE002756",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "112",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
issn = "2169-897X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evidence for montmorillonite or its compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars

AU - Clark, Benton C.

AU - Arvidson, R. E.

AU - Gellert, R.

AU - Morris, R. V.

AU - Ming, D. W.

AU - Richter, L.

AU - Ruff, Steven

AU - Michalski, J. R.

AU - Farrand, W. H.

AU - Yen, A. S.

AU - Herkenhoff, K. E.

AU - Li, R.

AU - Squyres, S. W.

AU - Schröder, C.

AU - Klingelhöfer, G.

AU - Bell, James

PY - 2007/6/20

Y1 - 2007/6/20

N2 - During its exploration of the Columbia Hills, the Mars Exploration Rover "Spirit" encountered several similar samples that are distinctly different from Martian meteorites and known Gusev crater soils, rocks, and sediments. Occurring in a variety of contexts and locations, these "Independence class" samples are rough-textured, iron-poor (equivalent FeO ∼ 4 wt%), have high Al/Si ratios, and often contain unexpectedly high concentrations of one or more minor or trace elements (including Cr, Ni, Cu, Sr, and Y). Apart from accessory minerals, the major component common to these samples has a compositional profile of major and minor elements which is similar to the smectite montmorillonite, implicating this mineral, or its compositional equivalent. Infrared thermal emission spectra do not indicate the presence of crystalline smectite. One of these samples was found spatially associated with a ferric sulfate-enriched soil horizon, possibly indicating a genetic relationship between these disparate types of materials. Compared to the nearby Wishstone and Watchtower class rocks, major aqueous alteration involving mineral dissolution and mobilization with consequent depletions of certain elements is implied for this setting and may be undetectable by remote sensing from orbit because of the small scale of the occurrences and obscuration by mantling with soil and dust.

AB - During its exploration of the Columbia Hills, the Mars Exploration Rover "Spirit" encountered several similar samples that are distinctly different from Martian meteorites and known Gusev crater soils, rocks, and sediments. Occurring in a variety of contexts and locations, these "Independence class" samples are rough-textured, iron-poor (equivalent FeO ∼ 4 wt%), have high Al/Si ratios, and often contain unexpectedly high concentrations of one or more minor or trace elements (including Cr, Ni, Cu, Sr, and Y). Apart from accessory minerals, the major component common to these samples has a compositional profile of major and minor elements which is similar to the smectite montmorillonite, implicating this mineral, or its compositional equivalent. Infrared thermal emission spectra do not indicate the presence of crystalline smectite. One of these samples was found spatially associated with a ferric sulfate-enriched soil horizon, possibly indicating a genetic relationship between these disparate types of materials. Compared to the nearby Wishstone and Watchtower class rocks, major aqueous alteration involving mineral dissolution and mobilization with consequent depletions of certain elements is implied for this setting and may be undetectable by remote sensing from orbit because of the small scale of the occurrences and obscuration by mantling with soil and dust.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34447543685&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34447543685&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1029/2006JE002756

DO - 10.1029/2006JE002756

M3 - Article

VL - 112

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

IS - 6

M1 - E06S01

ER -