Evaluation of Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb as Disinfectants of the Dimorphic Fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii

Natalie M. Mitchell, Dewey Magee, Thomas E. Grys, Douglas Lake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: To date, limited published data exists regarding the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants in inactivating the Risk Group 3 dimorphic fungal pathogens, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Newer generation quaternary ammonium compounds, like Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb, have not been previously evaluated. Methods: Herein, these disinfectants are evaluated against 10% bleach and 70% ethanol, for their ability to inactivate 5 × 107 arthroconidial spores of C. immitis RS or C. posadasii strain Silveira within 2, 5, 10 or 20 minutes contact time in aqueous solution. Results: Evidence is provided that both Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb are highly effective alternatives to 10% bleach or 70% ethanol for the disinfection of 5 × 107 arthroconidia of Coccidioides spp. within 2 minutes of contact time. Discussion: Both 70% ethanol and 10% bleach were seen as less effective than the other disinfectants, requiring a longer contact time to completely inactivate the same number of arthroconidia. Conclusion: A contact time of > 2minutes is adequate for the disinfection of 5 × 107 Coccidioides spp. arthroconidia when using either the Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb formulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalApplied Biosafety
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Coccidioides
Disinfectants
Fungi
fungus
ethanol
Ethanol
disinfection
Disinfection
ammonium compound
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
spore
Spores
aqueous solution
pathogen
disinfectant
evaluation

Keywords

  • BSL-3
  • Coccidioidesspp
  • dimorphic fungal pathogens
  • disinfectant
  • Virex II 256
  • Virex Tb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

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title = "Evaluation of Virex{\circledR} II 256 and Virex{\circledR} Tb as Disinfectants of the Dimorphic Fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii",
abstract = "Introduction: To date, limited published data exists regarding the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants in inactivating the Risk Group 3 dimorphic fungal pathogens, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Newer generation quaternary ammonium compounds, like Virex{\circledR} II 256 and Virex{\circledR} Tb, have not been previously evaluated. Methods: Herein, these disinfectants are evaluated against 10{\%} bleach and 70{\%} ethanol, for their ability to inactivate 5 × 107 arthroconidial spores of C. immitis RS or C. posadasii strain Silveira within 2, 5, 10 or 20 minutes contact time in aqueous solution. Results: Evidence is provided that both Virex{\circledR} II 256 and Virex{\circledR} Tb are highly effective alternatives to 10{\%} bleach or 70{\%} ethanol for the disinfection of 5 × 107 arthroconidia of Coccidioides spp. within 2 minutes of contact time. Discussion: Both 70{\%} ethanol and 10{\%} bleach were seen as less effective than the other disinfectants, requiring a longer contact time to completely inactivate the same number of arthroconidia. Conclusion: A contact time of > 2minutes is adequate for the disinfection of 5 × 107 Coccidioides spp. arthroconidia when using either the Virex{\circledR} II 256 and Virex{\circledR} Tb formulations.",
keywords = "BSL-3, Coccidioidesspp, dimorphic fungal pathogens, disinfectant, Virex II 256, Virex Tb",
author = "Mitchell, {Natalie M.} and Dewey Magee and Grys, {Thomas E.} and Douglas Lake",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/1535676018818560",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Applied Biosafety",
issn = "1535-6760",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",

}

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T1 - Evaluation of Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb as Disinfectants of the Dimorphic Fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii

AU - Mitchell, Natalie M.

AU - Magee, Dewey

AU - Grys, Thomas E.

AU - Lake, Douglas

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Introduction: To date, limited published data exists regarding the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants in inactivating the Risk Group 3 dimorphic fungal pathogens, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Newer generation quaternary ammonium compounds, like Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb, have not been previously evaluated. Methods: Herein, these disinfectants are evaluated against 10% bleach and 70% ethanol, for their ability to inactivate 5 × 107 arthroconidial spores of C. immitis RS or C. posadasii strain Silveira within 2, 5, 10 or 20 minutes contact time in aqueous solution. Results: Evidence is provided that both Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb are highly effective alternatives to 10% bleach or 70% ethanol for the disinfection of 5 × 107 arthroconidia of Coccidioides spp. within 2 minutes of contact time. Discussion: Both 70% ethanol and 10% bleach were seen as less effective than the other disinfectants, requiring a longer contact time to completely inactivate the same number of arthroconidia. Conclusion: A contact time of > 2minutes is adequate for the disinfection of 5 × 107 Coccidioides spp. arthroconidia when using either the Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb formulations.

AB - Introduction: To date, limited published data exists regarding the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants in inactivating the Risk Group 3 dimorphic fungal pathogens, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Newer generation quaternary ammonium compounds, like Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb, have not been previously evaluated. Methods: Herein, these disinfectants are evaluated against 10% bleach and 70% ethanol, for their ability to inactivate 5 × 107 arthroconidial spores of C. immitis RS or C. posadasii strain Silveira within 2, 5, 10 or 20 minutes contact time in aqueous solution. Results: Evidence is provided that both Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb are highly effective alternatives to 10% bleach or 70% ethanol for the disinfection of 5 × 107 arthroconidia of Coccidioides spp. within 2 minutes of contact time. Discussion: Both 70% ethanol and 10% bleach were seen as less effective than the other disinfectants, requiring a longer contact time to completely inactivate the same number of arthroconidia. Conclusion: A contact time of > 2minutes is adequate for the disinfection of 5 × 107 Coccidioides spp. arthroconidia when using either the Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb formulations.

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KW - disinfectant

KW - Virex II 256

KW - Virex Tb

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