Evaluation of Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb as Disinfectants of the Dimorphic Fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii

Natalie M. Mitchell, Dewey Magee, Thomas E. Grys, Douglas Lake

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Introduction: To date, limited published data exists regarding the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants in inactivating the Risk Group 3 dimorphic fungal pathogens, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Newer generation quaternary ammonium compounds, like Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb, have not been previously evaluated. Methods: Herein, these disinfectants are evaluated against 10% bleach and 70% ethanol, for their ability to inactivate 5 × 107 arthroconidial spores of C. immitis RS or C. posadasii strain Silveira within 2, 5, 10 or 20 minutes contact time in aqueous solution. Results: Evidence is provided that both Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb are highly effective alternatives to 10% bleach or 70% ethanol for the disinfection of 5 × 107 arthroconidia of Coccidioides spp. within 2 minutes of contact time. Discussion: Both 70% ethanol and 10% bleach were seen as less effective than the other disinfectants, requiring a longer contact time to completely inactivate the same number of arthroconidia. Conclusion: A contact time of > 2minutes is adequate for the disinfection of 5 × 107 Coccidioides spp. arthroconidia when using either the Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb formulations.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    JournalApplied Biosafety
    DOIs
    StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

    Fingerprint

    Coccidioides
    Disinfectants
    Fungi
    fungus
    ethanol
    Ethanol
    disinfection
    Disinfection
    ammonium compound
    Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
    spore
    Spores
    aqueous solution
    pathogen
    disinfectant
    evaluation

    Keywords

    • BSL-3
    • Coccidioidesspp
    • dimorphic fungal pathogens
    • disinfectant
    • Virex II 256
    • Virex Tb

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biotechnology
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
    • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

    Cite this

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    title = "Evaluation of Virex{\circledR} II 256 and Virex{\circledR} Tb as Disinfectants of the Dimorphic Fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii",
    abstract = "Introduction: To date, limited published data exists regarding the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants in inactivating the Risk Group 3 dimorphic fungal pathogens, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Newer generation quaternary ammonium compounds, like Virex{\circledR} II 256 and Virex{\circledR} Tb, have not been previously evaluated. Methods: Herein, these disinfectants are evaluated against 10{\%} bleach and 70{\%} ethanol, for their ability to inactivate 5 × 107 arthroconidial spores of C. immitis RS or C. posadasii strain Silveira within 2, 5, 10 or 20 minutes contact time in aqueous solution. Results: Evidence is provided that both Virex{\circledR} II 256 and Virex{\circledR} Tb are highly effective alternatives to 10{\%} bleach or 70{\%} ethanol for the disinfection of 5 × 107 arthroconidia of Coccidioides spp. within 2 minutes of contact time. Discussion: Both 70{\%} ethanol and 10{\%} bleach were seen as less effective than the other disinfectants, requiring a longer contact time to completely inactivate the same number of arthroconidia. Conclusion: A contact time of > 2minutes is adequate for the disinfection of 5 × 107 Coccidioides spp. arthroconidia when using either the Virex{\circledR} II 256 and Virex{\circledR} Tb formulations.",
    keywords = "BSL-3, Coccidioidesspp, dimorphic fungal pathogens, disinfectant, Virex II 256, Virex Tb",
    author = "Mitchell, {Natalie M.} and Dewey Magee and Grys, {Thomas E.} and Douglas Lake",
    year = "2018",
    month = "1",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1177/1535676018818560",
    language = "English (US)",
    journal = "Applied Biosafety",
    issn = "1535-6760",
    publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",

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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Evaluation of Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb as Disinfectants of the Dimorphic Fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii

    AU - Mitchell, Natalie M.

    AU - Magee, Dewey

    AU - Grys, Thomas E.

    AU - Lake, Douglas

    PY - 2018/1/1

    Y1 - 2018/1/1

    N2 - Introduction: To date, limited published data exists regarding the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants in inactivating the Risk Group 3 dimorphic fungal pathogens, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Newer generation quaternary ammonium compounds, like Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb, have not been previously evaluated. Methods: Herein, these disinfectants are evaluated against 10% bleach and 70% ethanol, for their ability to inactivate 5 × 107 arthroconidial spores of C. immitis RS or C. posadasii strain Silveira within 2, 5, 10 or 20 minutes contact time in aqueous solution. Results: Evidence is provided that both Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb are highly effective alternatives to 10% bleach or 70% ethanol for the disinfection of 5 × 107 arthroconidia of Coccidioides spp. within 2 minutes of contact time. Discussion: Both 70% ethanol and 10% bleach were seen as less effective than the other disinfectants, requiring a longer contact time to completely inactivate the same number of arthroconidia. Conclusion: A contact time of > 2minutes is adequate for the disinfection of 5 × 107 Coccidioides spp. arthroconidia when using either the Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb formulations.

    AB - Introduction: To date, limited published data exists regarding the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants in inactivating the Risk Group 3 dimorphic fungal pathogens, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Newer generation quaternary ammonium compounds, like Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb, have not been previously evaluated. Methods: Herein, these disinfectants are evaluated against 10% bleach and 70% ethanol, for their ability to inactivate 5 × 107 arthroconidial spores of C. immitis RS or C. posadasii strain Silveira within 2, 5, 10 or 20 minutes contact time in aqueous solution. Results: Evidence is provided that both Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb are highly effective alternatives to 10% bleach or 70% ethanol for the disinfection of 5 × 107 arthroconidia of Coccidioides spp. within 2 minutes of contact time. Discussion: Both 70% ethanol and 10% bleach were seen as less effective than the other disinfectants, requiring a longer contact time to completely inactivate the same number of arthroconidia. Conclusion: A contact time of > 2minutes is adequate for the disinfection of 5 × 107 Coccidioides spp. arthroconidia when using either the Virex® II 256 and Virex® Tb formulations.

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    KW - Coccidioidesspp

    KW - dimorphic fungal pathogens

    KW - disinfectant

    KW - Virex II 256

    KW - Virex Tb

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