Purpose: Artifacts observed in experimental magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography images were hypothesized to be because of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects. Theory and Methods: Simulations of MREIT acquisition in the presence of MHD and electrical current flow were performed to confirm findings. Laminar flow and (electrostatic) electrical conduction equations were bidirectionally coupled via Lorentz force equations, and finite element simulations were performed to predict flow velocity as a function of time. Gradient sequences used in spin-echo and gradient echo acquisitions were used to calculate overall effects on MR phase images for different electrical current application or phase-encoding directions. Results: Calculated and experimental phase images agreed relatively well, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with some exceptions. Refocusing pulses in spin echo sequences did not appear to affect experimental phase images. Conclusion: MHD effects were confirmed as the cause of observed experimental phase changes in MREIT images obtained at high fields. These findings may have implications for quantitative measurement of viscosity using MRI techniques. Methods developed here may be also important in studies of safety and in vivo artifacts observed in high field MRI systems.
- conductivity image
- magnetic flux density
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging