Estimation of male gene flow from measures of nuclear and female genetic differentiation

Philip W. Hedrick, Fred W. Allendorf, C. Scott Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


An approach is provided to estimate male gene flow and the ratio of male to female gene flow, given that there are estimates of diploid, nuclear gene flow and haploid, female gene flow. This approach can be applied to estimates of differentiation (FST) from biparentally and maternally inherited markers, assuming the equilibrium island model and equal effective numbers of males and females. Corrections to formulas used previously for California sea lions (González-Suárez M, Flatz R, Aurioles-Gamboa D, Hedrick PW, Gerber LR. 2009. Isolation by distance among California sea lion populations in Mexico: redefining management stocks. Mol Ecol. 18:1088-1099.) and American bison (Halbert ND, Gogan PJP, Hedrick PW, Wahl L, Derr JN. 2012. Genetic population substructure in bison in Yellowstone National Park. J Hered. 103:360-370.) are given and revised values for those species are calculated. The effect of unequal male and female effective population sizes, nonequilibrium conditions, and approximations of differentiation formulas are briefly discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-717
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Heredity
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2013


  • Y chromosome
  • dioecious
  • island model
  • microsatellite loci
  • mtDNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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