Leading theorists contend that "exit" and its many manifestations do not fit the "contentious collective action" model. This article argues, however, that exit is frequently the only collective action available to average people in authoritarian regimes. In such regimes, collective exit may take a variety of forms, hybridized here from the elements of traditional and modern repertoires under varying conditions of opportunity and framing. Descriptions of hybrid exit episodes from the German Democratic Republic, 1961-89, are based on annual reports by Amnesty International, on secondary sources before 1989, and, primarily, on accounts from six international presses for 1989.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sociology and Political Science