Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Gas flux and fluid geochemistry

Stanley Williams, Richard E. Stoiber, Nestor Garcia P., Adela Londoño C., J. Bruce Gemmell, Donald R. Lowe, Charles B. Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, in Colombia, released a small volume of pyroclastic material and a disproportionately large volume of volcanic gas. Before the eruption, summit fumarole gases became less water-rich, and the sulfur/chlorine ratio increased. Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide flux after the eruption indicated active degassing at levels associated with eruptive or inter-eruptive stages of other volcanoes. Thermal water analyses revealed increases in magnesium, calcium, and potassium and an increase in the magnesium/chlorine ratio, suggesting that these elements may have been leached from new magma. Ash leachate data showed sulfate and chloride concentrations and ratios that would be expected for the late stages of a major Plinian eruption. Water from the lahar contained high concentrations of sulfate and had a sulfur/chlorine ratio of 4.67, suggesting that water ejected from the crater lake and turbulent mixing of pyroclasts and glacial ice triggered the lahar. Microprobe analyses of pumice from this eruption and the most recent previous event showed similar mixed andesites. The uniform composition of the pumices and the unusually high ratio of gas to magma suggest that, although a new batch of magma triggered this eruption, the pumice that erupted may actually be old. Large volumes of new magma and glacial ice make the volcano dangerous and should stimulate development of an integrated long-term monitoring program to include Tolima volcano, 25 kilometers to the south.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)967-972
Number of pages6
JournalScience
Volume233
Issue number4767
StatePublished - 1986
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

volcano
volcanic eruption
geochemistry
magma
fluid
lahar
chlorine
gas
pumice
magnesium
sulfur
sulfate
plinian eruption
ice
volcanic gas
crater lake
fumarole
thermal water
turbulent mixing
degassing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Williams, S., Stoiber, R. E., Garcia P., N., Londoño C., A., Gemmell, J. B., Lowe, D. R., & Connor, C. B. (1986). Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Gas flux and fluid geochemistry. Science, 233(4767), 967-972.

Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985 : Gas flux and fluid geochemistry. / Williams, Stanley; Stoiber, Richard E.; Garcia P., Nestor; Londoño C., Adela; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Lowe, Donald R.; Connor, Charles B.

In: Science, Vol. 233, No. 4767, 1986, p. 967-972.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Williams, S, Stoiber, RE, Garcia P., N, Londoño C., A, Gemmell, JB, Lowe, DR & Connor, CB 1986, 'Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Gas flux and fluid geochemistry', Science, vol. 233, no. 4767, pp. 967-972.
Williams S, Stoiber RE, Garcia P. N, Londoño C. A, Gemmell JB, Lowe DR et al. Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Gas flux and fluid geochemistry. Science. 1986;233(4767):967-972.
Williams, Stanley ; Stoiber, Richard E. ; Garcia P., Nestor ; Londoño C., Adela ; Gemmell, J. Bruce ; Lowe, Donald R. ; Connor, Charles B. / Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985 : Gas flux and fluid geochemistry. In: Science. 1986 ; Vol. 233, No. 4767. pp. 967-972.
@article{5eddfd5893654c0ea7bed036d79a596b,
title = "Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Gas flux and fluid geochemistry",
abstract = "The 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, in Colombia, released a small volume of pyroclastic material and a disproportionately large volume of volcanic gas. Before the eruption, summit fumarole gases became less water-rich, and the sulfur/chlorine ratio increased. Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide flux after the eruption indicated active degassing at levels associated with eruptive or inter-eruptive stages of other volcanoes. Thermal water analyses revealed increases in magnesium, calcium, and potassium and an increase in the magnesium/chlorine ratio, suggesting that these elements may have been leached from new magma. Ash leachate data showed sulfate and chloride concentrations and ratios that would be expected for the late stages of a major Plinian eruption. Water from the lahar contained high concentrations of sulfate and had a sulfur/chlorine ratio of 4.67, suggesting that water ejected from the crater lake and turbulent mixing of pyroclasts and glacial ice triggered the lahar. Microprobe analyses of pumice from this eruption and the most recent previous event showed similar mixed andesites. The uniform composition of the pumices and the unusually high ratio of gas to magma suggest that, although a new batch of magma triggered this eruption, the pumice that erupted may actually be old. Large volumes of new magma and glacial ice make the volcano dangerous and should stimulate development of an integrated long-term monitoring program to include Tolima volcano, 25 kilometers to the south.",
author = "Stanley Williams and Stoiber, {Richard E.} and {Garcia P.}, Nestor and {Londo{\~n}o C.}, Adela and Gemmell, {J. Bruce} and Lowe, {Donald R.} and Connor, {Charles B.}",
year = "1986",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "233",
pages = "967--972",
journal = "Science",
issn = "0036-8075",
publisher = "American Association for the Advancement of Science",
number = "4767",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985

T2 - Gas flux and fluid geochemistry

AU - Williams, Stanley

AU - Stoiber, Richard E.

AU - Garcia P., Nestor

AU - Londoño C., Adela

AU - Gemmell, J. Bruce

AU - Lowe, Donald R.

AU - Connor, Charles B.

PY - 1986

Y1 - 1986

N2 - The 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, in Colombia, released a small volume of pyroclastic material and a disproportionately large volume of volcanic gas. Before the eruption, summit fumarole gases became less water-rich, and the sulfur/chlorine ratio increased. Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide flux after the eruption indicated active degassing at levels associated with eruptive or inter-eruptive stages of other volcanoes. Thermal water analyses revealed increases in magnesium, calcium, and potassium and an increase in the magnesium/chlorine ratio, suggesting that these elements may have been leached from new magma. Ash leachate data showed sulfate and chloride concentrations and ratios that would be expected for the late stages of a major Plinian eruption. Water from the lahar contained high concentrations of sulfate and had a sulfur/chlorine ratio of 4.67, suggesting that water ejected from the crater lake and turbulent mixing of pyroclasts and glacial ice triggered the lahar. Microprobe analyses of pumice from this eruption and the most recent previous event showed similar mixed andesites. The uniform composition of the pumices and the unusually high ratio of gas to magma suggest that, although a new batch of magma triggered this eruption, the pumice that erupted may actually be old. Large volumes of new magma and glacial ice make the volcano dangerous and should stimulate development of an integrated long-term monitoring program to include Tolima volcano, 25 kilometers to the south.

AB - The 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano, in Colombia, released a small volume of pyroclastic material and a disproportionately large volume of volcanic gas. Before the eruption, summit fumarole gases became less water-rich, and the sulfur/chlorine ratio increased. Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide flux after the eruption indicated active degassing at levels associated with eruptive or inter-eruptive stages of other volcanoes. Thermal water analyses revealed increases in magnesium, calcium, and potassium and an increase in the magnesium/chlorine ratio, suggesting that these elements may have been leached from new magma. Ash leachate data showed sulfate and chloride concentrations and ratios that would be expected for the late stages of a major Plinian eruption. Water from the lahar contained high concentrations of sulfate and had a sulfur/chlorine ratio of 4.67, suggesting that water ejected from the crater lake and turbulent mixing of pyroclasts and glacial ice triggered the lahar. Microprobe analyses of pumice from this eruption and the most recent previous event showed similar mixed andesites. The uniform composition of the pumices and the unusually high ratio of gas to magma suggest that, although a new batch of magma triggered this eruption, the pumice that erupted may actually be old. Large volumes of new magma and glacial ice make the volcano dangerous and should stimulate development of an integrated long-term monitoring program to include Tolima volcano, 25 kilometers to the south.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=37049180795&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=37049180795&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:37049180795

VL - 233

SP - 967

EP - 972

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 4767

ER -